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Evangeline Booth 


Author of "The Christ We Forget," "The Church We 
Forget," "Is Christ Possible?" etc. 


Fleming H. Revell Company 


Copyright, atCMXXxv, by 


fe All rights reserved; no part of this book may be 
^produced in any form without permission from 
^t&e Publisher, except by a reviewer desiring to 
'tfuote brief passages for inclusion in a notice to 
be inserted in a newspaper or periodical. 

New York: 158 Fifth Avenue 
London: 21 Paternoster Squajg 



















A A journalist who, for many years, has earned 
his livelihood on the press, I am continually 
astonished by the interest that is taken in the 
Salvation Army. It is an interest wide as the world 
itself and it is manifest in all classes of society. 
Kings on their thrones, statesmen in the Cabinet, 
judges, scientists, writers they join with the hum- 
blest of the humble, the poorest of the poor, the most 
degraded among the degraded, in the belief that the 
Salvation Army is of a peculiar and unique impor- 
tance to mankind. Some of us support the Army; 
others criticise. But we are unanimous in the reali- 
sation that this agency or whatever we like to call it, 
cannot be ignored. 

Recently, I put the case to the test. I consulted 
the index of the Encyclopedia Britannica and found 
that in six different volumes of this great authority, 
there were references to the Salvation Army. I 
turned next to the Outline of History by H. G. Wells 
& work covering the entire range of human activity 
and found that there had to be two references to 
the Salvation Army. George Macaulay Trevelyan, 
Regius Professor at Cambridge who has been 



awarded the Order of Merit, has written a History 
of England, and amid the politics, wars, discoveries, 
movements, conquests of two thousand years or 
more, he has found room for three references to the 
Salvation Army. The editors of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, Mr. Wells and Professor Trevelyan are 
not emotionalists. They are not fanatics. They are 
not sectarians. Their reputation has been won and 
can only be maintained by seeing life whole. Within 
that panorama, the Salvation Army has won a place. 

This interest in the Salvation Army is not to be 
explained by propaganda or by publicity. Nor is it 
due to any conspicuous ability or wisdom or knowl- 
edge displayed by the officers and soldiers of the 
Army. They are not and do not claim to be any 
different in themselves from the rest of us. What 
makes them important, is the issue that they have 
raised. It is an inescapable issue. It is an issue 
that has confronted successive generations of man- 
kind for thousands of years. It is an issue that 
faces millions of homes at this moment. 

The issue is simple. Here are we on this planet. 
How we came here, may be a mystery. Why we 
came, may be a no less baffling question. One thing, 
however, is certain. We are conscious of ourselves, 
of our circumstances. We live and we wish to make 
the most of life. 

Is life to be lost or is life to be saved? Is charac- 
ter to be destroyed or is character to be redeemed? 
Are love and duty and kindly feeling and willing 


service to wither away amid a wilderness of selfish 
paganism, or are they to flourish abundantly, to en- 
rich the resources of happiness, to be made the music 
of motive inspired by which man has the courage to 
build and rebuild the Kingdom of God upon earth? 
The Salvation Army stands for salvation not salva- 
tion as a topic for the psychologist not salvation as 
a dogma for the theologian not salvation as a sneer 
of the cynic but salvation as a gospel salvation as 
good news for those who have forgotten what it is 
to hear good news. This salvation is not a remote 
ideal. It is a Flag borne bravely by an Army into 
the hottest battle between right and wrong individ- 
ual and social national and international temporal 
and eternal. It is a fact that is seen in faces. It is 
a glory that triumphs in the heart. 

Every great enterprize ought to be brought under 
the searchlight. People cannot march through the 
streets and play hymn tunes on brass trumpets, and 
wave a colourful flag and declare that there is but 
one hope of salvation for mankind and then complain 
if they are talked about. 

Nor do Salvationists complain. The Army has 
endured its full share of persecution. It has had to 
outlive ridicule and survive its own inexperience. 
Indeed, it is now subject to the severest test of all. 
It has to answer for its maturity. In all romances, 
whether of religion or of marriage, there is what 
St. John the Divine described as "the first love. 77 
Said he to the Church at Ephesus, "I have somewhat 


against thee because thou hast left thy first love." 
The Salvation Army is to-day combating all those 
actualities which militate against the first love. In 
the great race, Salvationists are supported by what 
is familiar to athletes as "the second wind." Their 
test is not merely enthusiasm. It is endurance. 

It is not the purpose here to present an academic 
thesis. Rather would I endeavour to offer what may 
be called a fireside talk on the Salvation Army an 
explanation of what the Army is and what the Army 
does which may tell a father of a family, a mother, 
a boy or girl anxious to make the most and best of 
life, what the Army means. I shall indulge in no 
heroics and there may be those who will think that I 
have understated the facts. I am not a Salvationist, 
and it must be borne in mind that we who are em- 
ployed on newspapers, have every reason to mistrust 
anything that savours of illusion or the ecstasies of 
the partizan. 

It happens that my education was based upon 
mathematics, and while I cannot pretend that I was 
ever so very "good at sums," I did at least learn to 
mistrust any idea or enterprise however pictur- 
esque, however benevolent that failed to satisfy a 
sense of logic. It is the logic of the Salvation Army 
that compels assent. We cannot imagine a multi- 
plication table in which twice two do not make four. 

There are, at this time, two reasons why it may be 
appropriate to survey the record and the opportuni- 
ties of the Salvation Army. First, the Army is com- 


pleting the seventieth year of its activities and, 
founded in the nineteenth century, has to face the 
twentieth century. Many people, therefore, are 
asking questions. How did the Army originate? 
What has the Army achieved? What may it achieve 
in years to come? 

Secondly, a new General has been elected. The 
High Council of the Salvation Army has called upon 
Evangeline Booth to assume the labours and respon- 
sibilities of an arduous office. It happens that, for 
several years, I have had the advantage of hearing 
what Evangeline Booth says herself about the great 
organisation of which she has become the world-wide 
leader. These discussions were informal and not 
undertaken with any idea of publication. But it is 
now possible to express in the General's own words 
some of the points which arise in this survey. It 
may be that millions who know of General Evan- 
geline Booth by name and reputation and, in many 
cases, have heard her speak from the platform will 
be glad to have a more intimate picture of one who 
to-day ranks among the most conspicuous and the 
most honoured women of our period. 



IF I were asked why, all my life, I have believed 
in the Salvation Army, I would reply by appeal- 
ing to one plain and inescapable fact on which 
there can be no controversy. It is a fact which all 
of us, whatever our theology or lack of it, whatever 
our race or religion, whatever our politics, whatever 
our view of art or economics, have to acknowledge 
as absolute in its finality. The fact is Need. Every 
hour of every day, we meet people who if the truth 
were known are in Need, 

The churches and the synagogues and hospitals 
and many a helpful agency with innumerable in- 
dividuals are rendering noble service to mankind 
at infinite personal sacrifice. Yet when we think of 
broken homes, of wrecked careers, of the selfishness 
that fails to satisfy the selfish, of economic uncer- 
tainties, of dangerous antagonisms, we cannot but 
thank Providence that, amid all the good that is 
done everywhere, there is the Salvation Army. It 
arose because it had to be, and that is the reason 
why, as it seems to me, it will endure to the end of 

Let us see how it was that the Salvation Army 


came into existence how it spread to the United 
States and throughout the world. Let us follow the 
river as it flows from its source, gathering many 
tributaries, and pouring its waters into the great 
ocean of eternity itself. 

Many elements in our civilisation originated in 
England. There was the common law, football, the 
Bible Society, the Y. M. C. A., the steam-engine and 
the railway. It was in England that the Salvation 
Army originated, and the reason from the first was 

In schools and colleges, there might well be a 
course of instruction in the literature of Need. The 
gay page of Punch was shadowed, one Christmas, by 
Tom Hood's Song of a Shirt. 

Work, work, work, 
In poverty, hunger, and dirt. 

j Charles Lamb and Charles Kingsley lavished 
^their genius on the strange sorrows of the chimney 
^sweep. Ruskin's profound reverence for loveliness 
v in art and nature was outraged by the unutterable 
^filth and squalor that were accumulating in indus- 
trial areas. Dickens gathered the flowers of humour 
C** and heroism that grew God alone knows how 

the jungle and the wilderness. 
All honour to Lord Shaftesbury who demanded 
^legislation to remedy evil conditions in the factories 
to George Cadbury who substituted a garden 
suburb for a slum to the stalwarts who attacked 


the sweat shop to Barnardo and George Miiller 
who cared for the orphans. 

Amid these many reformers and evangelists of the 
dawn, there were two who stood forth conspicuous. 
They were William and Catherine Booth the 
Founder and the Mother of the Salvation Army, It 
was the idea within them that shone so clearly amid 
the half lights. In every fibre of their beings they 
believed that Need can only be overcome by Love 
and they had the heroism to act on this belief. 
They defined Life a true life as Love applied to 
Need, and they found that Love, thus applied, is 
triumphant. As Drurnmond declared, such Love is 
"the strongest thing in the world." Clothed in this 
garment of service and sacrifice, the Booths, hus- 
band and wife, emerged as the shining symbol of 
victory over whatever degraded the royal dignity, 
whether of man or woman. As a Magna Carta, they 
claimed a new birthright for the children of God. 

The love that William Booth shed abroad among 
the people in need was greater than his own. This 
prophet of the power of the Best to redeem and 
transform the Worst gazed with kindled eye at the 
cross where was crucified the Christ and at the form 
of the dying thief who suffered at the Saviour's side. 
He looked at the scene on Calvary and to use the 
lines of Blake declared: 

To teach doubt and experiment 
Certainly was not what Christ meant. 


There are many systems of society, sacred and 
secular. He had his opinion like the rest of us as 
to which is better and which is worse. But the 
gospel that he preached, was like a kind of X-Ray 
that penetrated all systems and sought out the in- 
dividual. Suppose that there be the ninety and 
nine who safely rest within the fold of society. 
What about the lost sheep on the mountains? To 
the statistician, he is merely one per cent. To the 
Saviour, he is worth the world and that also is his 
worth to the mother who bore him. 

And is it only a case of one per cent? Read the 
famous fifteenth chapter of St. Luke and we dis- 
cover that as Love becomes vigilant, the percentage 
of lost to be found rapidly rises. The sheep were 
in the fields anywhere. But within the home, 
what happens when a piece of silver is mislaid? It 
is found to be one piece in ten or ten per cent. 
What happens when the prodigal son goes astray? 
To a sorrowing Father, he is one of two brothers or 
fifty per cent of all his hopes. The more man loves 
man, the more does he realise what a calamity it is 
when someone man or woman is lost. 

In dealing with those who had fallen out of line 
with life, William Booth did not mince matters. With 
a zeal that was as quenchless as it was merciful, he 
drove the two-edged sword of the spirit into the 
vital realities of wrong. He had the courage to 
probe evil to its ultimate source. 

General Booth was a realist. He did not ignore 


the Devil as the impulse to evil. He did not deny 
Hell as "spiritual torpor 55 arising out of evil. He 
fought the Devil and he laid siege to Hell. Into the 
blackest depth that enveloped the sinner who had 
wronged himself, his family, society and God, this 
trustee for the Gospel dared to descend, and out of 
the abyss, he bade the broken man, the disgraced 
woman to look up and claim the uttermost splen- 
dours of the highest Heaven. Gripping the hand of 
the fallen and the wayward, this true captain of 
salvation was fighting the good fight of that faith 
which was manifest in the Christ when he declared 
to the thief, To-day shalt thou be with me in Para- 

There are those who suggest that Salvation is 
merely a spiritual reflex of rugged individualism. 
That was not the idea of William Booth. A person 
was not soundly saved unless he was consecrated to 
service. He had not forsaken sin unless he had 
forsworn the sin of selfishness. Salvation was the 
stepping stone to a new career of conquest for 

In the recognition of social responsibility, the 
Salvation Army has been among the pioneers* 
Years before President Roosevelt, as a statesman, 
drew attention to the forgotten man, General Booth^ 
as a prophet, was making history with his famous* 
book In Darkest England. Published in 1890, this 
epoch-making volume, revealing as it did the 
tragedy of "the submerged tenth/' changed the at- 


mosphere of domestic statesmanship. Evils that 
had been accepted or ignored, could not be dismissed 
henceforth from the consideration of public men, 
and in William Booth was nobly fulfilled the boast 
of the poet Blake 

I will not cease from mental fight, 
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand, 

Till we have built Jerusalem 
In England's green and pleasant land. 



I HESITATE to allude to personal experiences yet it 
is possible that some of them may contribute 
to this discussion. For I was, at one time, 
among those young graduates of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge who lived at Toynbee Hall and other uni- 
versity settlements in the kind of districts in Lon- 
don where the Salvation Army originated. 

At close quarters, I met the people with whom 
the Salvation Army was dealing the irregularly 
unemployed, the drink-ridden unemployable, the 
sweated worker, and I used to preside, two evenings 
a week, over debates, formal and informal, at which 
men of many occupations and grievances immi- 
grants, dockers, Communists, Irish argued hour 
after hour, over the social system and religion and 
the meaning of life. Over and over again I have 
answered Communists fresh from European con- 
spiracies, by saying, "what have you got against the 
Salvation Army?" 

When I was member of Parliament, my wife and 
I called personally on thousands of homes in mid- 
London, visiting condemned areas where the police 
themselves disliked to go after dark, and there is, 



I think, no doubt that, on one occasion, I was fortu- 
nate to escape the fall of a heavy projectile from a 
third floor window which, aimed a foot or two more 
accurately, would have ended my political enthu- 
siasms. So in Trafalgar Square and Hyde Park, 
where I was among those who raised a voice on be- 
half of the under-privileged in the community. 
These experiences are of no importance in them- 
selves. But out of them I derived a profound re- 
spect for the day to day activities and evangelism 
of the Salvation Army, These people doubtless did 
a good deal of talking. But they talked the truth 
and they tackled actualities. 

I saw General Booth in life. Also, I saw him in 

Vague and fleeting is the recollection of what in 
these days would be called a motorcade, passing 
through a country town. For an instant we, who 
were boys at the time, caught a glimpse of a thin 
ascetic figure, darkly clad in a closefitting coat, 
whose silver-crowned head and pale countenance 
rose above the heads of the people like the inspired 
face of a Hebrew prophet. He was hurried into and 
hurried out of our street the breathless herald of 
hope for lost humanity. 

At the Albert Hall, I saw him again, blind as 
Homer with his genius and no less venerable, yet as 
alert as ever in his movements as he paced this way 
and that, his prophet's cloak swaying like a kilt, his 
white hair waving in his own breeze, his voice ring- 


ing forth the edicts of divine decision, as with sight- 
less vision he swept his gaze around the universe in 
which his spirit seemed to chafe as in a cage. 

Finally I saw him at rest, enveloped in what 
seemed to me at the time to be a bizarre riot of colour 
blue, red and yellow, as in a Russian scene in 
the midst of which pageantry of the Holy War, he 
lay alone in his glory, his splendid profile young 
again with eternal youth, the leader who, by the 
Grace of God, had faced hard fate in others and 
mastered it. 

The Salvation Army was then, what it continues 
to be to-day, a past master in the art of expressive 
demonstration, and why not? It is not amid moun- 
tains that men raise to heaven the loftiest spires 
above their sanctuaries. It is the humdrum com- 
munity on the plains of Netherland that builds high 
and fills its churches, oftentimes, with a glory of 
colour. So with the Salvation Army. Its splendours 
are the splendours of those who know no other 

Men who serve the state receive titles, are robed 
in velvet and ermine, decorated with stars and 
garters. Scientists are awarded their Nobel Prizes. 
And I am one who, as I look on the faces of Salva- 
tionists their wholesome vigour their eager parti- 
cipation in all that is going on their courtesy and 
readiness to do a kindness their freedom from 
self-assertion their incessant toil for others say 
to myself "If the Army produces people like this, 


let them have all the bands, bonnets and tambou- 
rine3 that they want. Let them fill a thousand Al- 
bert Halls a thousand Madison Gardens if this 
is all that they ask of social recognition I" 

It is no matter for surprize that, in his later years, 
General Booth was acclaimed throughout the world 
as an outstanding celebrity. He was received by 
King Edward at Buckingham. Palace. He offered 
prayer in Congress. At the University of Oxford, 
he looked the part in his doctor's gown. 

I was too much of a rebel to be concerned with 
this kind of thing, The blood in my veins is hope- 
lessly Quaker. But I am, beginning to appreciate 
the value of such scenes as a formative influence on 
public opinion. Most people are conscious of mo- 
notony in life. They crave for sensation, and it has 
to be cheap sensation. They can afford none other. 
A murder, a scandal, a feat in athletics, a flight 
through the air, a disaster in the mean street all 
of this provides a thrill. 

The Salvation Army has taken the good in life 
and made it as sensational as the evil. It has made 
the spiritual as sensational as the material. The 
melodrama had been devoted to downfall. It now 
included uplift. The home that seemed to be so 
humdrum, began to be honoured as a palace. It had 
its address in the democracy of the City of God 
where there are many mansions and a place for 
everyone prepared by the Redeemer Himself. 

There was one expression of esteem for the Army 


that compelled the scoffers themselves to bare their 
heads. Of London, Wordsworth, in his oftquoted 
sonnet, had written 

Deax God! the very houses seem asleep 
And all that mighty heart is lying still. 

But, on this occasion, all that mighty heart was 
deeply stirred. 

I had been a spectator at the funeral of Queen 
Victoria and of King Edward. As a reporter, I had 
now to "cover" the funeral of General Booth. All 
of us on the press were astounded by those obse- 
quies. Here, after all, was one who had been a 
private citizen. Yet the pavements of mid-London 
were crowded to capacity, including the side streets; 
the windows were thronged; the roofs were lined 
with onlookers. 

The magnitude of this processional far surpassed 
any result of pre-arrangement. People talked about 
the lapsed masses who drift away from religion. 
Those lapsed masses were canonising their own 
saint. The millions claimed his memory. "Here," 
said they in their hearts, "is the man who had the 
courage to tell us what we know to be the truth 
about ourselves." 

It was with the slow grandeur of a Roman tri- 
umph that the cortege, honouring William Booth, 
advanced through the streets of London. It seemed, 
in very truth, that a conqueror was claiming ' c the 
world for Christ." 


At the open grave of William Booth, I realised 
for the first time whatever it be within the Salva- 
tion Army that can make the most of men and 
women. At the open grave of William Booth, I first 
saw the most brilliantly gifted of his daughters and 
heard her voice. She raised that voice in prayer. 

It was a moving scene and let us realise what 
the scene disclosed. The Army is governed accord- 
ing to regulations and discipline is strictly enforced. 
But it is not by regulations not even by discipline 
that the fighting quality of an Army is to be ap- 
praised. There is also morale and the morale of this 
Army is the morale of a family in a Father's home. 
The beat of the drum is no more than the echo of 
the beat of the heart; and this was the throb that 
rendered a last long reverberating salute to William 
Booth as he was laid to rest. 

Unless the beat of the heart be heard, it is im- 
possible to appreciate the life of a Salvationist, and 
I know not how to express that music otherwise 
than in the words that Salvationists themselves em- 
ploy. It happened that I was browsing over old files 
of The War Cry published by the Army and sold in 
the streets. On a frayed and faded page I came 
across an archive which perhaps will be of interest 
to others who may not have seen it. Here with 
one or two trivial corrections of phrase is the last 
letter written by William Booth to his daughter 



I had your letter. Bless you a thousand times! 
You are a lovely correspondent. You don't write 
your letters with your pen, or with your tongue, you 
write them with your heart. Hearts are different; 
some, I suppose, are born sound and musical, others 
are born uncertain and unmusical, and are at best 
a mere tinkling cymbal. Yours, I have no doubt, 
has blessed and cheered and delighted the soul of 
the mother who bore you from the very first opening 
of your eyes upon the world, and that dear heart 
has gone on with its cheering influence from that 
time to the present, and it will go on cheering among 
the rest your loving brother Bramwell and your 
devoted General right away to the end; nay, will go 
on endlessly, for there is to be no conclusion to our 

I want it to be so. I want it to be my own experi- 
ence. Love, to be a blessing, must be ambitious, 
boundless and eternal. Lord, help me! and 
Lord destroy everything in me that interferes with 
the prosperity, growth and fruitfulness of this pre- 
cious, divine and everlasting fruit 1 

I have been ill I have been very ill indeed, I 
have had a return of my indigestion in its most terri- 
ble form. This spasmodic feeling of suffocation has 
so distressed me that at times it has seemed almost 
impossible for me to exist. Still, I have fought my 
way through, and the doctors this afternoon have 
told me, as bluntly and plainly as an opinion could 


be given to a man, that I must struggle on and not 
give way, or the consequences will be very serious. 

Then, too, the eye has caused me much pain, but 
that has very much, if not entirely, passed off and 
the oculist tells me that the eye will heal up. But 
alas! alas! I am absolutely blind. It is very pain- 
ful, but I am not the only blind man in the world, 
and I can easily see how, if I am spared, I shall be 
able to do a good deal of valuable work. 

So I am going to make another attempt at work. 
What do you think of that? I have sat down this 
afternoon, not exactly to the desk, but anyway to 
the duties of the desk, and I am going to strive to 
stick to them if I possibly can. I have been down 
to some of my meals; I have had a walk in the gar- 
den, and now it is proposed for me to take a drive 
in a motor, I believe some kind soul is loaning me. 
Anyhow, I am going to have some machine that will 
shuffle me along the street, road and square, and I 
will see how that acts on my nerves, and then per- 
haps try something more. 

However, I am going into action once more in the 
Salvation War, and I believe, feeble as I am, God is 
going to give me another good turn, and another 
blessed wave of success. 

You will pray for me. I would like before I die 
it has been one of the choicest wishes of my soul 
to be able to make the Salvation Army such a power 
for God and of such benefit to mankind that no 
wicked people can spoil it. 


Salvation forever I Salvation Yellow, Red and 
Blue! I am for it, my darling, and so are you. 

I have heard about your open-air services with 
the greatest satisfaction, and praise God with all 
my heart that in the midst of the difficulties of cli- 
mate and politics, etc., you have been able to go 

I have the daily papers read to me, and among 
other things that are very mysterious and puzzling 
are the particulars that I gather of the dreadful heat 
that you have had to suffer, both as a people and as 

You seem to have had lively times with the 
weather. It must have tried you very much, 

My telling you not to fret about me is the proper 
thing to do. That is my business in this world, and 
if I can only comfort your dear heart, well I shall do 
good work. 

Good-by, my darling child. Write to me as often 
as you can, but not when overburdened. I arn with 
you, and for you, and in you forever and ever. Love 
to everybody. 




IN THE City of Nottingham, there is a modest 
dwelling that is now preserved as a museum of 
the Salvation Army. It was the home of Wil- 
liam Booth, a minister of the Methodist New Con- 
nection and of Catherine Mumford whom he mar- 

On Christmas Day, 1865, it was weather that 
Dickens might have described. Snow lay on the 
ground and six children in the parlour were cele- 
brating the festival of childhood. 

The door opened and there entered a thin, pale, 
restless man, wearing a long coat and beard that 
seemed to double his age. He had steel-grey eyes, 
a strong aquiline nose and an abundance of black 
hair. He carried a hamper, and with great expecta- 
tions it was opened. Within lay a new-born baby. 
She is known to-day as Evangeline, the daughter of 
the angels at Bethlehem. The sounds that first 
greeted her ear were not the clatter of machinery, 
the roar of traffic, the thunders of war. Those 
sounds were the chime of bells and the melody of 

On the family of Booth, a library has been writ- 



ten. With its achievements and its limitations, it is 
unique. There has been no family quite like it. On 
the one hand, we see strongly defined and entirely 
human characteristics. On the other hand, there 
has been manifest in the family an imperious call 
to serve great ends. The upbringing of Evangeline 
Booth was repressive of interests held to be irrele- 
vant to the true purpose of life. It was no less of a 
stimulus to the fulfilment of those purposes. 

In their negatives, the Booths were emphatic as 
the Puritans. There was no drink, no tobacco, no 
cards, no dancing, no evenings at the theatre, no 
days at the race course. The abstentions were 
monastic in their severity. 

It was not all sacrifice. The home, thus sur- 
rounded by safeguards, was developed into a com- 
plete world of seething activity. The children were 
encouraged to keep animals as pets and to care for 
them. There was unfailing solicitude for the rab- 
bits, guinea pigs, birds, mice and dogs which in- 
habited the domestic menageries. The child Eva 
loved animals and, throughout her varied career, 
animals have not ceased to return her love. 

Evangeline, as she grew out of babyhood had a 
marmoset and this marmoset could hardly be de- 
scribed as a credit to the species. The creature 
displayed all the rascality of which a monkey is 
capable, and the little girl, eager to redeem its char- 
acter, dressed it in uniform. But when she added 
the ribbon of The Salvation Army she was im~ 


pressed by her mother's gentle remonstrance: "But, 
Eva, it does not live the life. 53 

What this family avoided, was not the reality of 
life but the artificiality. They substituted beliefs 
for make-beliefs, and Evangeline Booth grew up to 
be an out-of-door as well as an indoor person she 
loved the breezes. She has her own universal thea- 
tre. It is the field and the forest. She has her own 
everlasting music hall. It resounds with the singing 
of birds. The scenery that surrounds the drama of 
mankind in which she plays her part, is far-reaching 
in its horizons as the clouds and the stars, nor can 
she conceive of an orchestra more compelling in its 
harmonies than the wind in the trees. 

It is not enough to say that the Booths were 
Methodists. Their zeal in Methodism was the zeal 
of Wesley himself nor could that zeal be held in 
restraint. There is the oft-told story essential to 
this perspective of their exodus into the wilderness. 

In 1861, the Conference of the New Connexion 
was held in Liverpool. There arose the eternal con- 
flict between those who would go forward and those 
who were inclined to hold back. As usual in such 
emergencies, a compromise was suggested, and at the 
crisis William Booth, on the floor, glanced at his wife 
in the gallery. In her dark dress this young wife 
stood, and the building rang with the challenging 
word, "Never 1" At the sound of it, the husband 
rose to his feet, bowed to the chair and, as a signal to 
, his wife, waved his hat towards the door. There were 


cries of "Order I" but he walked out of the chapel, 
and in the vestibule the two of them met and em- 
braced. Together they went forth to fight the battle 
of an unknown future that, later, was shared by 
Evangeline Booth. 

The home was filled with an exhilaration. It was 
as ozone in the atmosphere and the children 
breathed that atmosphere into their systems. There 
was passion to win souls more souls and more 
souls. The child's first earliest recollections were 
of her father as General, with officers around Mm, 
and bands that played the hymns, and lassies who 
collected pennies in their tambourines and above 
all, the flag blue and red with its motto, "The 
World for God." 

It was not long before the spirit of the crusade 
entered into the receptive mind of Evangeline. At 
the age of five, so it was recorded by the cook who 
ministered to the family, the child assumed control 
of the kitchen which she arranged for a meeting. 
On the chairs, there was an excellent attendance of 
dolls, cushions and brooms who faced the table 
on which the youthful maiden climbed. From this 
point of vantage, she preached her first sermon, 
herself choosing the text and, it will be admitted, 
with some ingenuity. The text Vas "Hi, Diddle, 
Diddle. 77 

It was a surprisingly pertinent sermon, and the 
theme clearly recalled by the cook was courage 


in adversity. It may be very awkward when the 
cat gets into the fiddle and spoils the tune. It may 
be sad for little children when the cow, instead of 
yielding her milk, jumps over the moon. Yet did 
these perplexities dismay the heart of the little dog? 
The little dog laughed to see such fun, and as for 
the dish, it ran away with the spoon. Where else 
should the dish be found except with the spoon as 
companion? So it ended right after all. 

At the age of ten, Evangeline was again overheard 
as she preached. This time it was no nursery rhyme 
that provided the text. The child discoursed on the 
basic truth of all that ever has been, all that is, or 
ever will be. She spoke of the words, "God is 
Love," and outside, on the stairs, her father listened, 
and made notes of the address, which were carefully 
preserved. "Eva," he wrote, "is the orator." 

Throughout that home, the question above all 
other questions was whether each child in turn 
would decide to live the life. At the age of twelve, 
the moment for that great decision came to Evan- 
geline Booth. We catch a glimpse of a slim, fair- 
haired girl, disturbed by deep emotions. Her eyes 
are shining with tears, yet bright with the expression 
of a great purpose. Barefooted she seeks her 
mother and flings herself into those arms which 
were strong even in sympathy. The daughter not 
yet in her 'teens had given herself to God. 

There was no doubt as to the cost of the gift. 


Those were days before the great development of 
education for women, especially in England. Yet 
education was available for a family in the position 
of the Booths and, apart from each education, cul- 
ture was among the amenities of leisure. The one 
absorbing thought of Evangeline Booth was the 
Salvation Army. Repeatedly she might have mar- 
ried and had a home of her own. The suitors, as 
they indicated their attitude, were referred by this 
young girl to her mother, nor did the Founder of 
the Salvation Army ever forget a loyalty, thus Spar- 
tan. When he died, he bequeathed to his daughter 
one simple and sufficient legacy. It was her mother's 
wedding ring. As Commander in the United States 
she carried that ring and she still carries it as Gen- 

The strain on a tender nature is not to be under- 
estimated. There is a profound even a pathetic 
significance in the picture of this child in her 'teens 
confessing on her knees her little betrayals into ir- 
ritability and seeking a divine deliverance from what 
her sensitive soul deplored as a bad temper. 

Nor in this holy and wholehearted warfare was it 
the mind alone that was exposed to wounds. Medi- 
cal science, as we know it to-day, and especially pre- 
ventive medicine were still in their infancy, and this 
particular family, by the necessities of its mission, 
was brought into contact with every kind of epi- 
demic. Smallpox, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, 


measles, whooping cough all of these infections 
were among the more or less serious leprosies which 
received the courageous touch, at any rate, of a 
spiritual healing. And the whooping cough proved 
to be a serious business. 


SINCE the eighties, the world has changed. 
Never in history have there been changes so 
rapid and far-reaching. It is not easy even for 
those of us who have lived through these changes to 
realise what were the conditions under which Evan- 
geline Booth threw herself, body and soul, into the 
great crusade for Salvation. 

Florence Nightingale had succeeded with diffi- 
culty in persuading the previous generation that 
nursing in a military hospital is a profession suit- 
able for women. In the Society of Friends, women 
shared with men the ministry of preaching. But 
there were hardly any women as yet in journalism, 
the medical and legal professions, or even in com- 
mercial offices, where the typewriter was not yet in 
common use. To-day women, even in India, exercise 
the vote. They sit in legislatures. They serve in 
Cabinets. They fly over land and sea in aeroplanes. 
They march in parades. Fifty years ago, the sphere 
assigned to most women, even in English speaking 
countries, was still the triple K of the Germanic 
code translatable as church, children and cookery. 
From the first, the Salvation Army announced 



that, in the sight of God, women and men as cru- 
saders for righteousness enjoy an equal status. 
They share the same opportunities and they shoul- 
der the same responsibilities. With her compelling 
eloquence, Catherine Booth stepped into the lime- 
light as the comrade of William Booth. If he was 
Founder of the Salvation Army, she was the Army's 
"Mother." Nor was it possible to gainsay her initia- 
tive. Had she not also graduated for the duties of 
life in the home? Before she advanced into evan- 
gelism she had been a faithful and efficient house- 

It was a very different matter when in the least 
orderly of London's streets and slums, there was 
seen a mere slip of a girl, distinctively attired 
who seemed to be a vision of tender and innocent 
simplicity from a world far different from the under- 
world into which she had made her way. It was in 
no nicely ordered Sunday School that she preached 
the Gospel of the Grace of God. Without flinching, 
she faced the problem of poverty the formidable 
brutalities, prejudices, ribaldry and disorders that 
accompanied lack of education, decent housing and 
regular employment. 

There have been those who, considering the im- 
maturity of this girl at that time, have suggested 
that she was brought by her parents under some 
kind of moral pressure, and compelled to enter a 
field from which girls of her age were, as a rule, so 
carefully shielded. General Evangdine Booth has 


always denied with emphasis that any undue influ- 
ence was brought to bear upon her. Her choice may 
have been a hard choice. But it was her own choice 
and her service was perfect freedom. On the par- 
ents' side, there was a complete confidence that God 
would protect His own. 

As a Field Marshal, Sir William Robertson held 
a peculiar position in the affection of the public. He 
had enlisted as a private soldier and had risen to the 
highest rank from the lowest. Never could it be 
said that Evangeline Booth received special privi- 
leges from her father. In those early days, the 
suggestion that William Booth had any special 
privileges to offer would have been regarded as 
ridiculous. It is like saying that a soldier enjoys a 
special privilege when he goes over the top into no- 
man's-land and norGod's-Iand. From rank to rank, 
Eva, as she was called by rich and poor, had to work 
her way, nor does she ask anyone to do anything 
that she has not herself had to do in years gone by. 

The problem that had to be solved was a problem 
of perception. Here, on the one hand, was the Gos- 
pel. It was a Gift of Life expressed in a literature, 
admittedly marvellous and firmly believed by the 
Salvation Army to be divine, called the Bible. It 
was a Gift of Life embodied in the Life of Lives, 
the Death of Deaths, the Resurrection that includes 
all Resurrection, which has inspired artists to paint 
great pictures, architects to build great cathedrals, 
composers to produce great music, missionaries to 


endure great martyrdoms, scholars to pursue great 
researches, and families to offer great examples of 
sane and decent conduct and character. 

On the other hand, there was London not ill- 
natured not unloving but riotous at times with 
sheer misery. There were slums, some of which 
have been cleared away. Within these slums lay 
the dark shadows of poverty and crime and drink. 
Not only were there forgotten men. The boys were 
forgotten. The girls were forgotten. In attics and 
cellars of intolerable atmosphere, sweatshops reared 
their undernourished families. 

In what language was the Gospel to be made 
known to people in the rapidly growing cities who 
were surrounded by such conditions and restricted 
by such limitations of mental and social outlook 
people who were seldom if ever seen in a church 
people who were not much wanted in many churches 
of that period of the proprieties? Bible Societies 
were translating the Scriptures into every language 
spoken on earth. Evangeline Booth was among 
those who translated the Scriptures into the English 
of the English. 

The initiative that had been revealed in her 
juvenile discourses to the strange congregation of 
cushions and brushes and dolls which she assem- 
bled in the kitchen of her home, was now to be 
developed in very different fields. Before she had 
entered her 'teens, Evangeline Booth had become a 
child crusader among children, and it was an ad- 


mirable apprenticeship. As we listen to her ad^ 
dresses, we can discern the simplicity of exposition 
within an elaborated eloquence, which enabled her 
to appeal to all kinds of minds the simple and the 
sophisticated the ignorant and the learned. It is 
as children that she has always invited the weary 
and the disillusioned to come back to the Father's 
home and find therein the kingdom of heaven. 

How to win children, became her solicitous anx- 
iety, and one of her ingenious artifices it came a 
few years later created something of a local furore. 
In front of a basement, there appeared a notice that 
dolls would be there mended. At once, there gath- 
ered a multitude of youngsters, clamorously de- 
manding the restoration of whatever of rag or wood 
they declared to be "a doll." Evangeline Booth was 
not precisely an expert on mending dolls and espe- 
cially of flotsam and jetsam that were only dolls 
in the imagination of their owners. However, she 
was not to be daunted and she proceeded single 
handed to carry by storm a neighbouring doll factory 
where her story evoked a generous response. Crates 
full of dolls in parts arrived and an humble worker 
in the neighbourhood was appointed to carry out the 
constructive surgery. Those dolls wherever they 
went, bore with them the tenderness of the Eternal 
Father who sets children in the midst of the uni- 

If Evangeline Booth was to win the hearts of the 
poor, she had to share their heartaches, and the 


only way to know poverty is to be poor. The flower 
girls of Piccadilly Circus were thus interested one 
day to receive an addition to their company nor had 
they the least idea who she was. But there was no 
mistaking the message of the rags that she wore. 
Picking up her coppers, the child, as she still seemed 
to be was evidently up against it. One old fellow 
from whom she begged a hot potato was moved to 
pity, and told her to go to the Salvation Army "Sure 
they'll help you" he declared, and it turned out that 
he was himself a converted Salvationist. 

Piccadilly Circus was the campus of the only 
college that Evangeline Booth ever attended, and 
she emerged from that study of the humblest com- 
merce with a knowledge which, perhaps, could never 
have been acquired otherwise. Nor have the people 
of London ever forgotten the gracious and winning 
gesture of genuine comradeship with which a woman 
of brilliant capacity, as she has proved herself to be, 
approached the obscure millions of a vast me- 

For years, this fair-haired girl, with a ribbon of 
red in her bonnet, was seen and heard, day and 
night, singing, pleading, helping and defending the 
weak wife and her children against the husband's 
drunken rage. They threw stones at her, and bot- 
tles, and pailfuls of hot water. In hovels where the 
filth was unspeakable, she faced all that the police 
anywhere have had to face. She was seen in the 
courts. In public houses, evening after evening, she 


appeared and amid the atmosphere that she de- 
tested, sang her songs of salvation. 

Notoriety hunting is an ancient pastime that 
never ceases to be popular, and many are they who, 
in the cause of religion and politics and art, have 
indulged in what we are accustomed to call "stunts." 
The excitement of what, after all, was a fierce war- 
fare might well have upset the balance of an impres- 
sionable girl, virtually alone in her pioneering. In 
Evangeline Booth, there was found to be a solidity 
of purpose which steadied her enterprize amid all 
the sensations of success and failure. It was only 
about her methods there was, at times, a touch of 
the strategic. But below the superficiality, as it 
seemed to be, her motives were deep as the soul 
within her, and as "manners maketh man," so did 
motives make this woman. 

Gradually she built up her activities, and as Cap- 
tain, she was put in charge of the Great Western 
Hall, Marylebone, not far from the terminal station 
of Paddington. Here was an astonishing campaign 
for such a girl to undertake but it was not long be- 
fore it began to be realised that here was to be 
heard a voice of no ordinary quality. An old man 
would creep into Eva's meetings and hide himself 
away in a back seat. His leonine visage and stout 
build seemed to be familiar. It was John Bright, 
who knew about eloquence. He made no secret of 
what he thought about this young girl's gifts. 

One chill night she had been preaching on the 


familiar hymn, "My Jesus, I Love Thee/' when the 
venerable Quaker statesman came up to her, but- 
toned up her collar, and said, "You must take care 
of yourself. You have a great work to do in the 
world." Bright wrote to William Booth: "You 
must pack her in cottonwool and keep her in a glass- 
case. She belongs to the public platform." 

John Bright was only the first of many eminent 
persons monarchs and statesmen men of science 
and letters captains of commerce and religious 
leaders who have counted it a privilege to hear 
Evangeline Booth. Her education may have been 
unusual. But it had its advantages. Evangeline 
Booth did not have the chance of reading all that 
is read to-day by students in high schools and uni- 
versities. But, like John Bright himself, she read 
the best and knew it by heart. Her diction is at- 
tuned to the King James version of the Bible and 
she has a keen ear for the value and harmony of 
words. It is this exquisite sense of rhythm that 
enables her to achieve melody in language and hers 
has ever been the aspiration of the artist. Nothing 
that, she says, nothing that she writes, is carelessly 
said or written. Amid all other demands upon her 
energies, she devotes infinite trouble to perfecting 
every syllable of what seems to be the spontaneous 
utterance of the moment. 

She is a musician and her songs, with their or- 
chestration, have been heard throughout the world. 
The harp is not an easy instrument to play but it is 


her instrument; and enormous audiences have been 
hushed to silence by its gentle notes. It is as an 
instrument of music that she uses her voice. They 
who recall the "organ tones" of Sarah Bernhardt 
frequently hear echoes in an elocution that carries 
every syllable to the remote seats of a vast audi- 

\ Faced by a crowd, friendly or hostile, the young 
Captain displayed an instinctive understanding of 
mass-psychology, and seldom if ever did her appeal 
fail to win sympathy. She saw the bad in man 
which too often was obvious. But she believed in, 
the good, however deplorably it might have been 
concealed. And it was at the decency which is 
latent within the roughest exterior that she aimed 
her arrows. Over and over again they hit the mark. 
There might be pandemonium in the hall. But who 
could quarrel with a Salvationist when, waiting for 
silence, she held the hand of an orphan boy standing 
on a chair at her side? Who could jeer at the little 
fellow a victim rescued from destitution as, in 
his piping treble he sang, "I am going home where 
the Angels dwell. Oh, sinner won't you come?" 
With such an expression of faith and of love, there 
was no arguing. 

When Evangeline Booth returned to England as 
General, she was greeted at one of the welcoming 
demonstrations by an aged Salvationist who had 
held her as a baby and confessed that she had been 
a very difficult baby to hold. "I was kicking then/ 7 


said the General amid a prolonged demonstration of 
cordial assent, "and I have been kicking ever since." 

With her tact and insight into character, Evan- 
geline Booth has never been a quarrelsome person. 
She is big, not small in her impulses and she seeks 
the larger result. But she has never been afraid of 
a fight if there is something worth while to fight for; 
and, if there has to be a fight, she fights hard. Few 
people who have had her for an antagonist, forget 
the experience, and there are fewer still who, even 
in defeat, bear her malice. 

The south coast of England is one long play- 
ground where millions annually enjoy the seaside. 
In certain of these resorts, there was, during the 
eighties, a dislike of the meetings and marchings of 
the Salvation Army. Local by-laws were invoked 
against these open air proceedings. The by-laws 
thus enforced were held to be contrary to the 
Common Law of England. In any event, like the 
Apostles in Jerusalem under somewhat similar cir- 
cumstances, Salvationists declared that they must 
obey God rather than man. At Torquay in Devon- 
shire, there were riots, arrests, persecutions and im- 
prisonments. Also there was trouble at Eastbourne. 

The leadership of the Salvationists was entrusted 
to Evangeline Booth and, amid their annoyance, 
the authorities themselves could not withhold their 
admiration of her spirited yet goodhumoured cour- 
age. What was to be done with people who, sum- 
moned to appear in the police court, opened their 


own prosecution with prayer? What measures 
could be effective when prisoners on release, were 
acclaimed with volleys of "Hallelujah" and paraded 
the streets clad in the costume of the jail with the 
broad arrow conspicuously displayed upon it? And 
how was Joan of Arc to be answered when, with a 
pertinacity as charming as it was logical, she en- 
quired why she alone was held to be immune from 

The struggle could hardly be regarded as helpful 
in itself to evangelism. But as publicity, it was the 
best thing for the Army that could have happened. 
When eleven Salvationists were fined a sovereign 
apiece, eleven members of Parliament subscribed 
their sovereigns to pay the fine, and, in due course, 
the by-laws were obliterated by appropriate legisla- 


THE career of Evangeline Booth has been ex- 
pressive of the development of the Salvation 
Army. At the outset, her activities were 
local. They became national and, step by step, she 
moved further afield until to-day her position is as 
international as the Salvation Army itself. 

Sometimes we are apt to suppose that the spread 
of the Salvation Army to the ends of the earth has 
been a kind of psychological accident due to the 
sublime idiosyncracies of a superman of benevolence 
who happened to be endowed with the qualities of 
an exceptional initiative. 

It is no disparagement of William Booth to say 
that here is a misapprehension of the facts. What 
he inspired and organised at the outset was no more 
than a loc<j,| mission, and it is doubtful whether, in 
the early days, he realised certainly he did not 
realise to the full whereunto this thing would grow 
to which he put his resolute hand. 

It is as we survey the Salvation Army in retro- 
spect that we realise how what did happen was 
bound to happen. The Army did not win its way 
by chance or luck. It embodied an idea and it was 



the right idea. If an idea is right anywhere, it must 
be right everywhere. From the first, the Salvation 
Army was handling universals. 

First, there was Need and how did William Booth 
define the Need? In one of his last messages he 

I want during 1912 to see a more direct, 
desperate and widespread effort for the salva- 
tion of the most despised, most hopeless, most 
dangerous and most burdensome classes of 
society. This crowd includes: 

The slaves of drink. 

The daughters of shame. 

The criminal fraternity. 

The most blasphemous and infidel mockers 
of religion, together with the occupants of the 
slums of our great cities, and the tramps who 
wander about in every corner of the land. 

Look at the world in which we are now living. 
Who will deny that there are still "slaves to drink" 
that there are still "daughters of shame" that 
there is still the "criminal fraternity" that there 
are still the homeless and the hopeless whose only 
religion is to blaspheme God and man? We are 
passing through what has been, perhaps, the gravest 
and most prolonged depression ever recorded in 
human history, and during this depression, there has 
been a widespread upheaval in faith and the re- 
straints of thought and action. 


As with the Need, so with the Love that meets 
the Need. This Love cannot be adequate if it be 
restricted in any way by frontiers, whether of na- 
tionality or environment. My old friend and col- 
league of the News-Chronicle in London, Hugh Red- 
wood has described the Salvation Army as "God in 
the Slums," He would be the first to declare that 
God is not limited to the slums. "The love of 
God" as Francis W. Faber has expressed it "is 
broader than the measure of man's mind," and so 
must be every expression of that love. 

What happened to the Salvation Army was no 
different from what happened during the first cen- 
tury of the Christian Era. The Gospel was scat- 
tered abroad like sparks from a fire, and wherever 
the sparks fell, new fires flamed forth. 

There was a family in humble circumstances. It 
was wholly devoid of those gifts and graces which 
lend distinction to personality. It might have been 
any one of a million families. Yet it was brought 
into the stream of history and made a definite dif- 
ference to what Jefferson called the pursuit of happi- 

The name of the family was Shirley and there 
were a father, a mother and a daughter, aged six- 
teen years, all of whom had become converts to the 
Christian Mission which later was enobled with the 
name of the Salvation Army. The young girl had 
been commissioned by William Booth as a lieu- 
tenant and he stipulated that, if she accompanied 


her parents, she must not forget her duty as an 

The Shirleys migrated across the Atlantic. 
Changing their domicile, they ceased to be British 
subjects- They were naturalized as citizens of the 
United States. But it made no difference to their 
faith. Saved in the old world, they were still saved 
in the new. The flag that had flown at Coventry in 
England had to be unfurled at Philadelphia in 
Pennsylvania, and that youthful lieutenant may be 
described without exaggeration as the Lindbergh of 
a rescuing gospel. 

The Shirleys were convinced that they were sur- 
rounded on every side by Need. The people were 
hungry for the Bread of Life more hungry in their 
hearts than some of them ever realised. The Salva- 
tionists passed a disused stable and asked the owner 
to let it. "What do you want it for?" he enquired. 
They told him that they wished to hold meetings for 
the Salvation Army. "Who will guarantee payment 
of the rent?" was the next question. "We will trust 
God for the rent," they replied. "Great Scott, I 
shall never get any rent that way!" he answered, 
but he had to be satisfied with the security. 

It was not William Booth who wrote to the Shir- 
leys inspiring them to evangelise. It was the Shir- 
leys who wrote to William Booth begging that he 
would forthwith send reinforcements and William 
Booth replied that he had no reinforcements to send. 
They continued in their appeal and, in February 


1880, Commissioner Railton, with seven officers, 
all of them women, set forth to initiate the first 
corps of the Army outside of the British Isles. The 
last of these pioneers Major Emma Westbrook 
was "promoted to glory" on January 5th, 1933. 

"As from the stable in Bethlehem where Jesus 
was born," says Evangeline Booth, in one of her 
descriptive addresses, "there have come all the 
temples and cathedrals and churches and chapels 
and mission-rooms and meeting-houses and Sabbath 
Schools in the world, so from this stable in Phila- 
delphia have come free dispensaries for the suffer- 
ing poor; emergency and rescue homes for the un- 
fortunate; relief depots supplying coal and blankets 
in winter, ice and milk for the babies in summer; 
hospitals for the sick; the poor man's church; the 
poor mothers' meeting-room; the young girPs 
sewing-room; the working man's club, and a place 
where the hounded, the sorrowing and the guilty 
can lay down their burden at the Saviour's feet and 
be free." 

It is in language of similar appeal to human feel- 
ing that the General has narrated how work among 
the children of the United States was started: 

"A large street meeting, she says, was being held 
plenty of soldiers plenty of instruments plenty 
of singing. It was a beautiful, simple talk the Cap- 
tain gave. He was a tall, strong man, with a red 
tend around his hat. The drum was turned into the 


penitent's bench, and men and women knelt down 
by it and wept, and found Christ. 

"It was a chill November evening, and the sea- 
son's first snow came down in the air as though it 
would sprinkle the penitents white. No one noticed 
the little girl eight years old bare feet scanty 
cotton dress her unnourished hair blowing in the 
wind. Such a little white pinched face large 
brown eyes had watched the people getting con- 

" 'Now to the hall/ said the Captain. The bands- 
men took up the drum the crowd began to leave, 
when the little girl whose home was a pallet of straw 
in the corner of a large cab and hansom stable, mus- 
tered her courage, pulled the big Captain's coat, and 
said, Tlease, sir, save me first.' 

"The drum was put down again, the piteous figure 
kneeled by it, with the big Captain beside her. 
Soon the meeting broke up. In the lead of the 
procession was the tall man with the red band round 
his hat, the little girl's hand in his large one. I see 
them now, and following on behind are the tens of 
thousands of children the Salvation Army has cared 
for, and the thousands of saved fathers and mothers 
in their wake, while an Angel before the Throne 
says, 'A little child shall lead them.' " 



THE earliest Salvationists fought evil with their 
bare hands. They were like peasants arm- 
ing themselves with scythes and sickles in 
order to meet the foe. But William Booth realised 
that soldiers in a complicated civilisation must be 
trained soldiers and it was Evangeline Booth who 
was placed in command of the International Train- 
ing Garrison in Great Britain. She is thus inti- 
mately acquainted as an educator with the formative 
processes by which the enthusiasm of the cadet is 
welded, like molten metal, into the serviceable wea- 
pon of practical efficiency. 

It was by no desire of her own that the name of 
Evangeline Booth began to be known outside Great 
Britain. It was not even at her own suggestion that 
she crossed the ocean. Her Father was also her 
General. She loved him wholly, she obeyed him 
implicitly, and it was he who, by cable, told her that 
she must go to New York. Because she was told 
to go, she went. 

The simplicity of her obedience to one whom she 
regarded as her superior officer did not alter the fact 
that, on this first visit, she had to face formidable 



difficulties. There was misunderstanding over the 
Army's purposes. There was dislike of the Army's 
methods. There was misgivings over the Army's 
finances. There was controversy. 

Evangeline Booth had to enter her first meeting 
by the fire-escape, and on one occasion there were 
critics in the audience prepared to bombard her with 
eggs and similar ammunition. Defiant, dauntless, 
yet patient, she faced the storm, holding the Stars 
and Stripes with one hand and the Salvationist 
standard with the other. The opposition was over- 
come, she won her hearing, nor has she ever lost it. 

Over perplexing situations, the newspapers then 
as now were outspoken. If there had been one 
false step on the part of the future General, her 
usefulness might have been impaired. She was 
assisted, I think, by a conspicuous and invaluable 
quality. Ours is a generation that pretends, at any 
rate, to believe in nothing and nobody. Not the 
least of the General's services to society has been 
her transparent sincerity. 

In the year 1896, Evangeline Booth had reached 
her thirties and she was appointed to be Territorial 
Commissioner of Canada where she succeeded her 
brother Commandant Herbert Booth. There were 
three Salvationist yachts equipped for service on the 
Great Lakes and the fishing fleets of Nova Scotia. 
One of these, decorated with bunting, bore the Com- 
missioner to Toronto where the wharf was crowded 


with banners, bands and troops of the Salvation 
Army, The "volleys" of cheering were enthusiastic. 

It was a brave show. But no less desperate was 
the battle. In twenty-three days of continuous 
speaking, with the temperature ranging from 85 to 
108 in the shade, the new Commissioner travelled 
6000 miles. It was an average on railways where 
speed is not the first object of 300 miles a day. 

In Newfoundland there was a typical incident. 
"Give me your hand," said the Commissioner to a 
man a backslider who sat silent and obstinate 
during the prayers. The man snatched his hand 
away. "Give me your hand," repeated the Com- 
missioner and again the man angrily refused. "You 
are God's and ours," said the Commissioner, adding 
gently. "Give me your hand." "I won't" said the 
man. "I can't follow you." Once more the Com- 
missioner said, "Give me your hand." The man 
leapt up and flung himself on the penitent form. A 
few minutes later he was seen at the platform, 
looking upwards as he cried, "Thank you Jesus that 
you ever let me see her face." 

The Salvation Army has developed what may be 
called a keen sense of emergency. Some great dis- 
aster creates a sensation. It is no mere sensation 
that sweeps over the Army. Spontaneously there 
is evoked the impulse to help. The question is not 
only how people feel. There is also the question 
what they intend to do about it. How much is their 
sympathy worth? 


In 1896, a terrible outburst of man's inhumanity 
to man challenged the conscience of civilisation. 
The massacre of Armenians by Turks was in very 
truth "a negation of God" and a hideous crime drew 
the venerable Gladstone out of his retirement to 
deliver the last of his many majestic orations a 
noble protest against unutterable infamy. 

It is thousands of miles from. Armenia to New 
Brunswick but the port of St. John was stirred by 
the arrival of refugees. Evangeline Booth greeted 
them and pleaded their cause. It was a crusade 
that served a purpose beyond its immediate object. 
It aroused those generous instincts which whatever 
be the occasion uplift the community above selfish 
and material considerations. 

Over another situation, there was an unforget- 
table scene. The Commissioner for Canada had 
proceeded to Seattle, there to meet her Father the 
General. The station was crowded with a turbulent 
multitude of minors, one of whom greeted William 
Booth with the cry "Klondyke or bust, General." 
The Founder of the Salvation Army stood silent for 
a while then said quietly, "This is my Klondyke." 

At Klondyke, the Salvation Army had a work to 
do and Evangeline Booth undertook that work. 
Tents and canoes were acquired and at Toronto - 
as the expedition set forth there was an impressive 

The love of Christ is inescapable in its appeal. 
At Calvary, we see the centurion who enforced the 


law. Also, we see the thief who had broken the law. 
Both of them surrendered to the Redeemer who 
loved them both. 

The visit of Evangeline Booth to Klondyke ex- 
pressed that gospel. At Dawson City, she was the 
guest of the Governor of Yukon and was escorted 
by Canadian Mounted Police. Yet her message also 
reached the depths. In the mining area, all sorts 
and conditions of men some of them with murder 
or other crime upon their conscience were moved 
by one absorbing impulse a greed for gold. Sud- 
denly they who loved only themselves, discovered 
that they were loved by others. They who valued 
only what they could get, were valued for what they 
were. They who pegged out claims for their own 
enrichment in the rocks and the soil and the ice, 
were confronted by the claim of God to whom all 
creation belongs. 

[t is midnight. In the Governor's carriage 
Evangeline Booth is returning from Grand Forks 
to Dawson City. The carriage is stopped by a 
stranger on the lonely road and the policeman on 
the box is prepared to take action. The face of the 
stranger betrays emotion. He holds out a small 
object and begs that it be accepted as a token of 
gratitude. It is a nugget of gold. 

In her activities, Evangeline Booth has been 
assisted by a constitution that responds with splen- 
did loyalty to the imperious demands upon health 
and strength. There have been times, however, 


when her energies have been overtaxed by incessant 
strain upon them, and in Canada there had to be a 
period of relaxation. It was saddened by sorrow. 

The Salvation Army in a neighbouring and friendly 
country, the United States, was under the command 
of a remarkable man, Frederick St. George de 
Latour Booth-Tucker had been born in the purple 
of a great bureaucracy. He was grandson of a 
chairman of the East India Company and son of a 
judge in India. It was a position in this powerful 
civil service that he resigned in order to become a 
Salvationist. In 1888, he married Emma Moss 
Booth, second daughter of the Founder, and known 
in the Army as the Consul, 

Emma Booth-Tucker was travelling to Chicago 
when the train ran into an open switch. The cars 
were wrecked and the Consul was found to be un- 
conscious. Her injuries were fatal. Evangeline 
Booth attended the funeral and was asked to speak. 
With effort she uttered a few words of prayer, and 
it was an effort for which as always she had to 
pay the price. The shock of seeing what her sister 
had suffered the surprize of the bereavement for 
a time overwhelmed her spirit 

The loss of his wife was a cruel blow to Commis- 
sioner Booth-Tucker and his command in the United 
States came to an end. A saint if ever there was 
one he consecrated himself to sacrifices that recall 
the piety of the great ascetics, living in India as the 
poorest Indians live and proving that the imitation 


of Christ, revealed by Thomas k Kempis, is a reality. 
Booth-Tucker was succeeded in the United States 
by Evangeline Booth on whom was conferred the 
title of Commander by which she was known for 
thirty years. 


IT WAS on the evening of December 6th 1904 that 
Evangeline Booth eager, alert, eloquent ap- 
appeared in the Carnegie Hall and there received 
her welcome to the United States. The enthusiasm 
was tumultous and the Commander had every reason 
to be gratified with her reception. 

Over the magnitude of her task, she had no illu- 
sions. She had been plunged into the greatest ex- 
periment ever undertaken by mankind. On the one 
hand, there lay a country of vast area and illimitable 
resources, reaching from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
On the other hand, there was poured into this coun- 
try, year by year, a never ceasing flood of alien lives, 
numbered by the hundred thousand, which had to be 
assimilated somehow by a hospitable community. 
The variety of the civilisation thus accumulating, 
the complexity of its problems, astounded and some- 
times appalled the sociologist. Protestants and 
Catholics and Jews British and Irish and Germans 
and Italians and Scandinavians whites and coloured 
there they were, mingling their traditions, their 
prejudices and even their animosities. 

Some said that here was a melting pot. Others 



declared that the country was still a mining camp 
within which cities were improvised overnight out 
of the prairies. There was a maelstrom of conflict- 
ing motives saloons versus churches the best 
battling with the worst and the stake at issue was 
nothing less than the destiny of the new world. In 
an era of rugged individualism as it was called 
the President, Theodore Roosevelt, in his masterful 
way, wielded "the big stick." 

In the hand of Evangeline Booth, there was no 
big stick. Hers was the sceptre of sympathy. But 
it proved to be a real sceptre. Her faith was no 
mere fiction. It was a force. It made a difference. 
She preached a salvation that included a saving 

For thirty years, her sincerity and her judgment 
were tested by every kind of situation and at the 
end of that long period of service, I was asked by 
the New York Times to contribute a character 
sketch of one whose name was a household word 
throughout the country. If I venture to quote a 
paragraph of this article, it is because it represents 
what a newspaper of national and international in- 
fluence, in full touch with the facts, accepted as a 
fair appraisal: 

The personality of the new General is as 
complex as the vast organization for which she 
is now to be responsible. We see in her a re- 
markable duality: On the one hand, the charm, 


humor, sympathy, enthusiasm, eloquence of a 
woman who, almost certainly, would have suc- 
ceeded in achieving fame had she chosen the 
stage to be her career; on the other hand, the 
tenacious purpose, the unwavering faith, the 
decisive and persevering and disciplined states- 
manship of an able executive. "Always go to 
the top," is her motto in dealing with enter- 
prises other than her own; "see the head." 
And that is one reason why she is herself at the 

People used to describe the General as "an angel" 
of help and comfort. It was a compliment that she 
disclaimed. She has always dreamed her dreams of 
a "better world" but she likes to add, "angels are 
very beautiful in their own land. They are too 
good for earth. They fly too high. I try to keep 
my feet on the ground." 

It is an instance of the whimsical humour that 
seldom fails the General. Whether she stands on 
the platform or faces the reporters or converses in 
her home, she flavors what she has to say with a 
smile as shrewd as it is winning and with a ready 

In a land where oratory is among the glories of 
democracy, the eloquence of Evangeline Booth was 
an invaluable asset. Wherever she went, she was 
heard by all who could crowd into the biggest halls 
and her audiences included the leaders of the nation. 


At Washington, it is a simple fact that the public 
appearances of the Commander drew men and 
women of every position from the White House, 
the Supreme Court, the Embassies, Congress into 
the audience, and she was heard, not only with 
admiration but with a growing personal respect. It 
used to be said of some great general that cc his 
words were half battles." The words of Evangeline 
Booth are not merely language. Grave or gay, they 
have always been used as weapons in the Holy War. 

In the United States as in Canada, the Salvation 
Army, recruited by redemption, was mobilised for 
active service. It was ready at any time to deal with 
emergencies nor was it long before the emergency 

In April 1906, the city of San Francisco was 
smitten by a terrible calamity. There was an earth- 
quake and it was followed by a fire which reduced 
to ashes much of the metropolis of the far west. 
Property valued at 60,000,000 or $300,000,000 
was destroyed. No fewer than 300,000 people were 
left without a roof over their heads. There were 
10,000 dead. The Provincial Headquarters of the 
Army, its entire equipment, its records, its social 
institutions and halls, were swept out of existence. 
The Army was itself a sufferer. 

It was a Friday when the blow fell. Instantly, 
the Commander faced the facts and the newspapers 
rallied to her appeal. On the Sunday immediately 
following, Union Square in the heart of New York 


was a mass of people. Joseph Choate had com- 
pleted his service as United States Ambassador in 
London and he presided over the demonstration. 
There, in the open air, a preliminary sum of $12,000 
was collected. 

The Salvation Army might have lost its buildings. 
But the Salvationists were still available and, with 
their Commander hurrying to the scene, they were 
greatly led. Victims amid the victims it was they 
who everywhere were seen to be rendering first aid. 
It was an admirable illustration of identical interests 
the Army, sharing and relieving the suffering of 
the community. 

"He taught them how to live and how to die," 
wrote William Somerville, the poet in a tribute to 
a clergyman, and of Sir Henry Lawrence, the hero 
of the Indian Mutiny, it was said that he knew how 
to die. So has it been with the Salvationists. They 
conquer death. 

In February, 1907, Scandinavians in the Army 
were to hold a Congress in New York. At Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, seven officers, bound for the 
Congress, and three cadets on their way to the 
Training College embarked on a steamer, the Larch- 
mont, which carried passengers over night along the 
coast and so to the metropolis. During the evening, 
the Salvationists held a meeting in the saloon, sing- 
ing their songs to the accompaniment of a guitar and 
a mandolin. The meeting ended and the Salvation- 
ist lasses they were seven retired to their cabins. 


A fierce gale was blowing and a few minutes later, 
a schooner called The Harry Knowlton, laden with 
coal, was driven into collision with the passenger 
boat. There was a scene of dismay. As the vessel 
sank, men and women fought desperately for their 
lives and 180 were drowned. 

One memory impressed the survivors. The Salva- 
tionists knew how to die. Above the sounds of 
horror rose the melody of a hymn. 

Jesus, lover of my soul 

Let me to thy bosom fly, 
While the nearer waters roll a 

While the tempest still is nigh. 

Verse followed verse, till the end came, 

Thou of life the fountain art, 

Freely let me drink of thee. 
Spring thou up within my heart, 

Rise to all eternity. 

Three bodies alone were recovered and, at Car- 
negie Hall, it was Evangeline Booth who told the 
story. "We make a mistake/ 7 she said, "when we 
say they went down. They went up. They rose as 
they fell." 

J^About the methods of Evangeline Booth, there 
was a cheerful humour that disarmed apposition. 
Looking over the records one is startled somewhat 
to discover an engrossed proclamation, full of re- 
sounding phrases "whereas" and so on and sq 
forth. It was a declaration of war against King 


Beelzebub, and it did not merely denounce him* It 
turned the laugh against him. It wounded him with 

There would be a "sinners' week" and a "boozers' 
day." Not only would 54 ex-boozers appear on the 
platform but their Commander would genially ob- 
serve that they represented more than a thousand 
years of drunkenness. To such triumphant gaiety 
there was no answer. It was irresistible. 

During the year J911 it was obvious that Evan- 
geline Booth had won her place in the United States. 
President and Mrs. Taft attended one of her meet- 
ings in Washington and, with an escort of officers, 
she was received at the White House. A memorable 
occasion was a sale of gifts. Mrs. Taft contributed 
a silk flag which she had made and there was much 
interest in a garment that had come from England. 
It was knitted by the hands of a friend of the Army 
one who is to-day honoured throughout the world 
as Her Majesty, Queen Mary. 



I HAVE been glancing over a file of the War Cry, 
packed with detail photographs, ejaculations, 
appeals, anecdotes; and out of this bewildering 
accumulation of record, it is the idea that emerges 
a new conception of what is worth while in human 
life not wealth, not territory, not power, but the 
use of wealth, of territory, of power not merely 
material advantages, but fatherhood, motherhood, 
childhood, love all the noble human emotions and 
affections which are radiant within the home the 
clean decencies that should pervade the school and 
college the courage and enterprize that are essen- 
tial to an advancing civilisation in a word, char- 
acter. The Salvation Army is among the forces that 
are striving to uphold the character of mankind. 

As I passed from volume to volume of the War 
Cry, I asked myself how much of this newspaper of 
salvation would supply material for quotation, and 
I was aware of a curious sensation. I looked at the 
date of the issue that I was reading and noticed that 
it fell within the summer of 1914. Yet who would 
have suspected itl 

Had there not been a murder of an Archduke at 



Serajevo? Was not that month of July filled with 
rumours of a world war? Were not statesmen writ- 
ing their ultimatums and preparing their mobilisa- 
tions? Where in the War Cry was there a hint of 
the imminent Armageddon? 

"Let me remind you," said the General when I 
referred to the matter, "of what actually happened 
during that summer of 1914. I was visiting London 
myself and have every reason for preserving a vivid 
recollection. We need not be surprized that Salva- 
tionists did not concern themselves unduly with the 
European crisis. They had a crisis of their own 
and it kept them busy. 

"There were those who said that the Salvation 
Army would break up at my Father's death/' con- 
tinued the General. "They were wrong. The Sal- 
vation Army did not and does not depend on individ- 
uals. It is an agent of the power of God unto 
Salvation and that power is divine. 

"Do you not remember our great building on a 
vacant space at Aldwych how it was filled to over- 
flowing, night after night, with the multitudes who 
were amazed, as the press testified, by the spectacle 
of Salvationists from all important countries Euro- 
pean, American, Asiatic, African, Australian gath- 
ered in their international Congress ? The newspapers 
were confessedly taken aback by the processions, 
with scores of bands and picturesque costumes, all 
demonstrating that Christ meets the need of man 
however civilised and however simple he may be. 


It makes no difference when it comes to the peni- 
tent form and the regenerated life that follows. 

"The Salvation Army had no difficulty with rival 
nations French and Germans, Japanese and Ameri- 
cans they marched together behind one Flag 
whereupon was inscribed "The World for God.' " 

Incalculable was the heroism evoked by the emo- 
tions of the World War. Within the Salvation 
Army, few in numbers yet indomitable in purpose, 
there was a heroism that pervaded the daily round 
and common task of life. The International Con- 
gress was inaugurated by a great disaster. For the 
second time, the Salvationists in the United States 
had to face the terror of the sea. In the River St. 
Lawrence, that most magnificent of all the world's 
waterways, a great liner, The Empress of Ireland 
was rammed by a collier. In fourteen minutes, the 
vessel foundered. There were 130 Salvationist offi- 
cers on board and, like the rest of the passengers, 
most of them were drowned. 

It is characteristic of the Army that the Memorial 
Service was dominated by the word "Victory 37 that 
immediately volunteers were available men and 
women who asked to take the place of "the pro- 
moted to glory" that "the war was waked anew." 
A great sorrow was transfigured into a renewed 

In London, Commander Booth took the people by 
surprize. They had known her as the flowergirl in 
rags, as the intrepid "lassie" who shrank from no 


slum and dared to rebuke the drunks in the public 
houses. They now saw her as a woman of ability 
and of experience who had handled large enterprises 
one who could "give the salute" and "take the 
salute." The Salvation Army did not merely ex- 
press a desire to be good. It asserted the achieve- 
ment of good and, on a horse, Evangeline Booth led 
a company of Salvationist rough riders from the 
western states of America, riding as well as the best 
of them. The gospel of the Grace of God had been 
carried to the covered wagon, to the cattle ranch 
and to the lumber camp. 

When the war broke over Europe, Evangeline 
Booth was fulfilling her responsibilities in a neutral 
country. But she professed a faith that demands a 
sense of obligation to God and man. Here was a 
collapse of Christendom. It happened to be Euro- 
pean Christendom. But did this mean that no duty 
lay on America? Was there to be heard once more 
the question of Cain am I my brother's keeper? 

The duty was simply expressed. There jsas.Jpr- 
ganised an Old Linen Campaign and shipments of 
lint arrived in Brussels, Paris and Berlin. The ac- 
knowledgments were significant. Nations bitterly 
fighting one another were united in graitude to the 
Salvation Army. Also, there were official comments 
on what some people would call a technical detail. 
It was noticed that the supplies were efficiently 
packed and accurately invoiced. The Salvation 
Army knew its business. 


In 1917, the United States entered the war as a 
belligerent and a grave decision had to be made by 
the Commander of the Salvation Army ia the He- 
public. Was the Army or was it not to accompany 
the American Expeditionary Force? Evangeline 
Booth did not hesitate. Into whatever danger the 
men of America might be called by duty there would 
the Salvationists be found at their side, ^ 

The services of the Army were offered to Presi- 
dent Wilson. He was informed that more than 
"30,000 men in active service, chiefly engaged in 
hospital, kitchen, ambulance" had been supplied al- 
ready by Great Britain alone, and that American 
Salvationists were no less ready to play their part. 
Many were the services that they were qualified to 
render. They might be appointed as chaplains. 
They might be included in the Red Cross. They 
might be responsible for huts and hostels and can- 
teens. They might minister to prisoners of war. 
Not that there was to be any dodging of the draft. 
Salvationists were ready to be "defenders of their 
native country, giving active service on the firing 
line in many different regiments." 

By the month of August, 1917, the Salvation 
Army in the United States had spent $900,000 on 
200 rest rooms, 183 hut tents, 70 hostels and 35 
ambulances. Every week 300,000 soldiers received 
hospitality and this was only a beginning. Salva- 
tionists, men and women, accompanied the American 
Army to France facing the horrors of a dreadful 


struggle. Nor has there been a doubt as to the im- 
pression they created. After the war, there was a 
parade in Washington and 200 of the wounded from 
a base hospital, occupied a grand stand. Many of 
them were tragically wounded some had lost a 
limb others were blinded but when the Salvation- 
ist contingent marched past, these sadly stricken 
boys rose in a body and cheered. In their spon- 
taneous way, they acknowledged a faith that, amid 
the fury of man, revealed the Fatherhood of God. 
(The United States endorsed the moving tribute 
of those wounded men. From coast to coast, the 
nation subscribed what in effect was a testimonial 
to the Salvation Army. It yielded $13,000,000 and 
the whole of this large sum was dedicated by the 
Army to developing means for a larger service to 
the community. 

Confidence in the Salvation Army pervaded all 
ranks of society. In New York, there is held the 
National Horse Show. It was the custom of the 
directors to hand over the gross receipts to the most 
approved charitable enterprize of the year and, in 
1919, the Salvation Army was selected. The Prince 
of Wales then visiting the United States was an 
illustrious guest and it was arranged that the Army 
should receive His Royal Highness. He had a con- 
versation with the Commander who, during the pro- 
ceedings, sat at his side. Nor has there been any 
doubt as to the appreciative opinion of the Army's 


work and influence then intimated to the Com- 

Some years later, the United States Army and 
Navy had a little difference over their rivalry at 
football and their annual game was suspended. 
After suitable negotiation, the contests were re- 
sumed and, at the first of the combats, the gate 
money was handed over to the Salvation Armyl 

Among millions of the people in France, there has 
been, since her great revolution, a profound scepti- 
cism over religion. The Salvation Army, during the 
war, somehow impressed the French imagination. 
The Army was international. It was the friend of 
all peoples. But it was loyal. It could be trusted 
by the patriot within his own country. 

Evangeline Booth in her uniform shrewd, cheer- 
ful, sympathetic, eloquent symbolised the Army 
for France and dramatised its activities. She was 
an idealist. The Army preached the eternals. But 
this idealism could be visualised in the immediate. 
It was prompt, punctual, precise. Its achievements 
were concrete. 

At Victory Parades, Marshal Foch, and General 
Pershing and Earl Haig included Evangeline Booth 
in their comradeship. Up the historic nave of Notre 
Dame, she marched in their company a soldier 
amid the soldiers as erect, as correct in her mili- 
tary bearing as were they. 

At the Arc de Triomphe, the Unknown Soldier of 
France is enshrined. He lies where tread number- 


less feet of the nation and wreathes are laid on his 
honoured grave. He belongs to France. 

On that hallowed spot, liturgy lies outside the 
ritual of reverence. Over the tomb, no prayer had 
been uttered. There came a day when the Salvation 
Army was permitted to add one more to the tributes 
of affectionate gratitude which everywhere perpetu- 
ate the memory of the Unknown Soldier. Evan- 
geline Booth saluted the grave. In her heart, there 
surged an irrepressible yearning for the greater good 
of all peoples. That soldier belonged to France. 
But did not France belong to God? 

The Salvationists, greatly daring, sang one of 
their hymns. The Commander knelt and a woman's 
voice, uttering the French language, broke the 
secular silence. The French soldiers, standing at 
attention, were deeply moved and not only by 
amazement. Some of them were moved to tears. 


^r ~TT TELL do I remember the appearance of 
\X / Evangeline Booth as she stood at her 

Y V Father's grave. Slim and soldierly, with 
fair hair tumbling about the forehead beneath her 
bonnet, she might still have been the young girl who 
not so long before had won a place in millions 
of hearts as the angel of the slums. 

About her enunciation as she prayed and her 
demeanour as she confronted the crowds, struggling 
with her tears, there was a gracious deference to- 
wards God and man which revealed the inward 
humility that is the strength of a leader. 

I did not see Commander Booth again for fifteen 
years and then it was in New York. A motor acci- 
dent had all but cost her life. She lay on a couch 
recovering and many things among them a world 
war had happened in the meantime. 

The Commander was suffering from shock. It 
was the sensitive side of her nature that was re- 
vealed weariness anxiety perplexity. It was a 
help to me to witness her courage amid discourage- 
ment. An unconquerable purpose seemed to sing in 
her speech like an overtone 



And when the fight is fierce, the warfare long, 
Steals on the ear the distant triumph song, 
bid hearts are brave again and hands are strong, 

Years ago I was in Fleet Street where newspapers 
are published. I have to confess quite frankly that, 
among editors and their staffs, the Salvation Army 
was sometimes regarded as a worry, A policy was 
adopted at international headquarters which as 
journalists, we resented. If in the course of our 
professional duty, we mentioned any matter that 
was held to be detrimental to the Army, we got the 
idea that complaints were made to people higher up 
on newspapers. Yet the Army was conducting vast 
social schemes of betterment. It was entrusted with 
large sums of public money. It was influential over 
multitudes of human lives, employed or relieved by 
various agencies. We considered that, as servants 
of opinion, the journalist has a right and a duty to 
adopt an attitude of detachment in his approach to 
such an enterprize. 

I am not saying that the Salvationists in London 
many of whom were my friends for all of whom 
I entertained a feeling that I can only describe as 
reverence in them I found what was better than 
I had ever managed to be were different in their 
treatment of the press from other groups of people, 
carrying on affairs, both sacred and secular. But, 
on freedom of observation and record, as it seems to 


me, a journalist, worth his salt, can make no com- 
promise. That freedom is to him a religion. 

It was with this memory in mind that I met Com- 
mander Evangeline Booth. I was not long in real- 
ising that, in dealing with a newspaper man, she 
was well aware of all the moves of the game. But 
I was much impressed by a little incident On one 
occasion, I suggested that she meet a number of 
pressmen at lunch. She declined. 

"I tried it once," she said, "and was not a success. 
They felt that I was trying to put them at a dis- 
advantage. I determined that I would never do it 

Commander Booth regards a conference with re- 
porters as a free-for-all. She invites straight ques- 
tions. She gives straight answers. She is heckled 
and she heckles back. 

Not long ago, a representative of the press came 
up to her and said that there was a question which 
he would have much liked to ask but he thought it 
too personal. 

"What was this question?" asked the General. 

"Well," said the reporter with a touch of hesita- 
tion, "I wanted to know why you never married." 

"I wish you had asked me that," laughed the Gen- 
eral. "I had such an excellent offer of marriage, 
only three weeks ago." 

No one who is received by the General at her desk 
or who sees her on the platform at some great rally 
where thousands greet her with warm welcome, can 


doubt for a moment her dignity of bearing and sense 
of responsibility. But high purpose and high pres- 
tige are one thing. High hat is another. 

The General has spoken to me of her attitude to- 
wards the internal dissensions in the Army of which 
a good deal has been heard in recent years. 

"The press," she said, "has been greatly inter- 
ested in what I may call our private affairs. Nor . 
do I complain. We have nothing to hide from any- 
body. But I add this: We are human like other 
people we have our feelings. But at least we have 
not allowed our difficulties to interfere with our 
work. Our views may not always have been the 
same. But nobody can say that we have withheld 
a helping hand from others. 

"I know," she went on, "what you are going to 
ask me next. What about reforms? I am quite 
ready to give you my view of all that. The Army 
has insisted on the right to elect its General and 
that, after all, is the main thing. The only question 
that remains is whether there should be an associa- 
tion of other officers with the General in the exercise 
of his powers. 

"My officers will testify that as Commander I 
always relied to the fullest extent on such associa- 
tion. As General that association will continue to 
be encouraged by me in every way and without any 
regard to opinions and parties, if there are any par- 
ties in the Army. The British Constitution, as you 
know, is largely unwritten. It depends on custom 


and precedent. I shall hope to set precedents which, 
in the future, will be regarded as a constructive and 
permanent solution of what has been, at times, a 
problem hitherto." 

The interest in the future of the Salvation Army 
is to-day worldwide and is all to the good. The 
more the Army is discussed, the better. But let us 
remember also that if the Army had depended on 
discussion, there would have been no Army at all. 
The question is, after all, how much is the discus- 
sion worth. 

I hesitate to offer an opinion on the future of the 
Army. It is a presumption even to have an opinion 
on what, after all, is in other hands than ours. But 
this I may venture to suggest. There has been no 
split in the Army, There will be no split. That 
crisis lies in the past. 

Sometimes it seems as if Salvationists were much 
harder on one another thaa anybody outside the 
Army would be. Their family quarrels, suet as 
they are, show what a real what a happy family 
they are. Somebody is always forgiving somebody 

Not that I would evade a point I have read as 
much as most people about all the Generals in the 
Army William Booth the Founder, Bramwell 
Booth, his son, Edward J. Higgins who was Bram- 
well Booth's Chief of Staff, and Evangeline Booth. 
I believe that all of them have been and are among 
the honoured personalities of our time. 


About Bramwell Booth, there is not and never 
has been any serious difference of opinion among 
those who observed and admired his life work. He 
was a man of immense energy, deep sense of re- 
sponsibility, genuine piety and kindly humour. He 
had to struggle against a deafness which would have 
been a more serious handicap, had it not been for 
the comradeship of his devoted wife. But it is not 
easy to dissent from the view of the late Lord David- 
son for so long, Archbishop of Canterbury that 
General Bramwell Booth did not appear fully to 
realise the wisdom of withdrawing from an arduous 
position when health and strength are denied. Also, 
I am among those who believe, rightly or wrongly, 
that the General ought not to appoint his own suc- 
cessor. The Pope does not appoint his own suc- 
cessor. Nor does the President of the United States. 
In the British Empire, the succession, though heredi- 
tary, is determined by Act of Parliament 

Evangeline Booth was convinced that some more 
reasonable arrangement than the famous "sealed 
envelope" must be made for the appointment of 
General. Events have shown that she and they who 
acted with her in what was called the reform move- 
ment, were right. 

The Army appears to be a centralised organisa- 
tion, and so it is. But the human body also is 
centralised like the Body of Christ, it is one and 
indivisible. Yet every part is essential to the whole 
and the health of the body depends on the health of 


the members. Salvationists, as a rule, work in small 
groups. Sometimes they are alone in their work, 
and at every point, the system depends upon the 
reliability the initiative of the individual. The 
High Council of the Salvation Army has justified 
itself, not merely as the instrument for appointing 
the General. Like the Imperial Conference, which 
brings together the British Commonwealth of Na- 
tions and the League of Nations itself, it is invalu- 
able to the unity of a farflung crusade. 

It is the spectacular aspect of the Salvation Army 
that the world sees the rallies, the marching, the 
pageants. Behind all this, there is a solid structure 
of persistent labour. 

Evangeline Booth expects others to work hard 
and she works hard herself. Her worst enemy if 
she has one cannot accuse her of slackening, even 
for a single day. In body and mind, she is inces- 
santly active, never going to sleep without a Bible, 
a scribbling pad, music papr and pencil at her 
bedside. It is in the quiet of the night that her 
ideas often develope. 

It is with the utmost freedom that the General 
discusses the Army, and never is her table talk more 
interesting than when she alludes to her Father. 
On one occasion I asked her to put into simple words 
what she considers to have been the secret of her 
Father's peculiarly compelling personality. 

"Is not this world," she said, "full of people who 
work out theories and expound dogmas and under- 


take all manner of activities? My Father had no 
objection to these people. Indeed with a smile 
"he was always ready to make good use of their 
brains and their money and their influence. 

"But it was his special call to deal with life as an 
emergency. It was all very well for the botanist to 
peer at a nettle through a microscope. But nettles 
have stings. They have to be grasped and my 
Father was one who never hesitated to grasp the 

It is the fashion in these days to dismiss revivals 
as an obsolete superstition. People question whether 
anyone ever has been or can be "soundly converted" 
and such transformations of character are studied 
by the psychologist merely as interesting possibly 
delusive phenomena. 

"There is no doubt" said the General "as to the 
reality of life-changing. The Salvation Army is 
itself a result of conversions. Indeed, the reality of 
conversion under our Flag has led to curious, ideas 
about the Salvation Army. People sometimes jump 
to the conclusion that all of us have been saved from 
drink or some disgraceful weakness. I have even 
heard it suggested that all of our lassies as they 
are called were rescued off the streets." 

The idea appealed to the new General's never 
failing humour and she added: 

"It is quite true that I spent much of my girlhood 
in the public houses of London, but I did not go 
there to drink. I went to sing the songs of emanci- 


pation from drink and to preach the power of a 
gospel which can and does liberate the victims of 
drink and any other temptation that besets and de- 
grades the individual. 

"Our officers and soldiers include many whose 
chains have been broken asunder, whose characters 
have been restored, whose reputations have been 
won back. But many Salvationists are to-day the 
children and grandchildren of Salvationists. Others 
have brought into the Army great gifts of mind and 
body which they have dedicated to our Flag. What- 
ever the background, whether of character or of 
environment, our firm faith is that all have been 
converted, all have turned from sin to God. 

"We have in our ranks both the Peters and the 
Pauls, and the tendency is for us to receive candi- 
dates for training who belong to a better educated 
class than formerly. In the United States if I may 
illustrate the situation from what happens to have 
been my own experience we have received many 
high school girls. 

"We make a great mistake when we suppose that 
drink and drugs and vice and crime are the only 
sins, A selfish and aimless life is not that a sin? 
A failure in the home is not that a sin? We who 
kneel at the penitent form with those who seek sal- 
vation, whose consciences give them no rest, who 
desire, often in tears, to make their peace with God, 
learn daily how prevalent is the disease of the soul 
and how varied are its symptoms." 


Salvation as proclaimed by the Salvationist is no 
merely academic theory. He holds that all have 
sinned and come short of the glory of God. No one 
has been all that he might have been. Sin is defined 
as something more than misfortune. It is fault and 
it implies guilt. Over the guilt of sin, the conscience 
even if lethargic, must be uneasy and to awaken the 
conscience, is a duty of evangelism. 

The belief of the Salvation Army is that sins con- 
fessed at the penitent form or anywhere else sins 
truly confessed and repented are forgiven by God, 
that Our Saviour died on the Cross as the Lamb of 
God in order to bear away the sin of the world, that 
He achieved this atonement between man and God, 
and that man can claim an absolute pardon from 
sin and a no less absolute power to overcome sin. 
Countless people, of all ages and races and religions, 
have found this release from sin to be a fact in their 
lives and with health regained, both moral and 
often physical have rejoiced in a new liberty as 
the redeemed children of the one Father of All. 

I asked the new General what she had to say 
about the permanence of conversions. Did they 

"Well," she answered, "the Salvation Army has 
lasted. Our record is the answer to your question 
and the record arises out of our principles." 

I put it to the General that a criticism of Bun- 
yan's Pilgrim's Progress just or unjust has been 


that Christian, in that allegory, was chiefly inter- 
ested in finding his own way to heaven. 

"I am aware," she said, "of the idea that some 
people suppose that "salvation is a kind of rugged 
individualism applied to religion that a man is 
saved for his own sake. This has never been and 
is not now the idea on which we seek and share 
salvation. Saved to save that is how we under- 
stand the gospel. The Salvationist receives the gift 
of life in order to bear that gift to the uttermost 
ends of the earth. 

"Salvationists have little use for a Christian who 
is of no use to the community. They ask whether 
he is what they mean by a Christian. What is this 
so-called Christianity in which all is taken and noth- 
ing given? 

"Salvationists hold that even a poor man who 
gives what he is, matters more to the world than a 
rich man who keeps things to himself, and they de- 
clare that people of modest means and average 
minds can, by goodwill, make a great difference to 
the world in which we have to live." 

"Have not times changed?" I asked. "Is there 
not a new science called psychology which suggests 
that the need for conversion is not quite what it used 
to be?" 

"During these seventy years, there have been 
many changes in civilisation changes that would 
amaze us if we did not become so easily accustomed 
to them. It has been the most prolific period in the 


annals of mankind. Yet our experience of what we 
describe as progress has included the bitter as well 
as the sweet. We have elaborated education and 
recreation and many beneficial amenities. But we 
have to face grave emergencies moral, economic, 
domestic and multitudes are murmuring in their 
hearts, if not uttering with their lips, the question 
which, in one form or another, is the same for all 
generations, 'what must I do to be saved?' That is 
the question to which Salvationists are convinced 
with an unshakeable faith that the gospel which 
they preach and honestly endeavour to practise af- 
fords a final answer." 

I suggested to the General that she should look 
back at her thirty years in the United States and 
sum up in a sentence her impression of all that she 
has seen and done the amazing growth of the Army 
during these years its numerous and varied activi- 
ties. She replied; 

"I have seen this nation in peace and war. I have 
seen her in periods of prosperity and periods of 
depression. I have seen her illusions and her dis- 
illusions. And as it seems to me, the Salvation 
Army has tried to add one little word may I call 
it a missing word to the Declaration of Independ- 

"That immortal instrument of aspiration belongs 
no longer to one nation. It is among the charters 
of mankind. Everywhere the community is recog- 
nising that the pursuit of happiness must be in- 


eluded among the unalienable rights of all people. 
But how is happiness to be pursued? Is not the 
Salvation Army assisting true progress and main- 
taining genuine wellbeing when it keeps before the 
nations the simple and compelling idea that the pur- 
suit of happiness will fail unless it includes the 
happiness of others?' 7 


EVANGELINE BOOTH would be the first to insist 
that the officers and soldiers of the Salvation 
Army are more important than the General. 
It is they who, often in isolation, have to fight a 
lonely battle with the world around then and with 
the self within. 

On receiving his commission, an officer of the Sal- 
vation Army takes a pledge of consecration in the 
following or similar words: 

I GIVE myself to GOD, and here and novsf bind 
myself to HIM in a solemn Covenant. 

/ will love, trust and serve Him supremely 
so long as I live. 

/ will live to win souls, and I will not permit 
anything to turn me aside from seeking their 
Salvation as the first great purpose of my 

I will be true to The Salvation Army, and 
the principles represented by its Flag under 
which I make this Life-Covenant. 



Opinion throughout the world seems to have ar- 
rived at a definite conclusion about the officers thus 
enrolled. It is that they have become an invaluable 
body of public servants, ready to undertake any 
task which may arise under the call of duty. 

Take your own city wherever it be. Suppose 
that, as an experiment, you make yourself personally 
acquainted with Salvationists who happen to be 
your neighbours. Do not worry, for the moment, 
about their beliefs or the system within which they 
are seeking a solution of the problems of life. What 
are these officers as individuals? 

You wiU discover, unless I am much mistaken, 
that they are people of deep conviction. They put 
themselves under severe discipline. They deny 
themselves many recreations. Yet they are, as a 
rule, curiously easy to get on with. So far as they 
can, they will do anything worth doing for anybody, 
and people who criticise the shams of civilisation 
sacred and secular often have a good word to say 
for the Salvation Army. To put the case In one 
word, they are humble. They think that they have 
found the greatest of all good. They wish to share 
it with everyone else. But that good is not in them- 

It is, after all, the motive that matters. These 
officers of the Salvation Army are human like the 
rest of us. But their objective is a genuine objec- 
tive. They do really and truly desire, if they can, 
to promote the greatest, the most abounding benefit 


of all. The Army does not ask that anyone shall 
be made poorer, even in worldly possessions. On 
the contrary, the passionate desire of the Army has 
always been that the gifts of God to man, whatever 
they be intellect, health, beauty, money, oppor- 
tunity may be most richly enjoyed by fullest use. 
Reading the newspapers, day by day, and following 
the stories of wasted wealth, blighted happiness, and 
reckless speculation in the glittering casino of suc- 
cess where frivolity is the prevalent fashion, often 
have I thought of what they who merely gamble in 
pleasure are missing, when they ignore the most ab- 
sorbing adventure of all a worldwide agency of 
sympathy and help, of wise rebuke and tenderly ef- 
fective redemption. 

Salvationists have a habit of talking about their 
great Army, its numerous agencies and all the rest 
of it* What impresses me, is not the magnitude of 
this movement but its smallness. Compared with 
the population of the world, the Salvation Army is 
a mere drop in the bucket. The officers could barely 
provide man-power for one Army corps in a modern 

The reason is simple. The Army insists on qual- 
ity first and quantity afterwards. Not many are 
willing to submit to its discipline and forego custo- 
mary pleasures. 

But the very insignificance of the Army in num- 
bers, emphasises its significance in service. How 
much more important to humanity is a single Army 


Corps consecrated to life than a hundred Army 
corps condemned to death! 

Everywhere the fight is an uphill fight. Every- 
where the odds are against victory. But this is the 
kind of fight that fascinates. People spend huge 
sums of money on the breeding of horses, cattle and 
dogs, on the culture of flowers, on the collection of 
pottery and bronzes. The Salvationist is a con- 
noisseur in what matters more than all of these. He 
seeks lost lives. 

No one, except by experience, can have any idea 
of the rapture in the heart which comes to a man or 
woman who sees some drunkard restored to his fam- 
ily, some jailbird in regular employment, some girl 
with self-respect once more in her face. It is like 
winning a great game and this is the reward of the 
Salvationist. One reads the War Cry week by 
week year by year. It is filled with records of 
what this or that officer has been instrumental in 
doing. It is the journalism of comradeship. Every- 
body seems to be anxious to encourage everybody 
else by giving him, when he deserves it, a pat on the 
back. Every such encouragement is inspired by joy 
over a life reclaimed or assisted. 

What is so evident in many Salvationists, is their 
attitude towards advancing years. They seem to 
have accumulated a fortune which continues to ac- 
cumulate. That artist is symbolism G. F. Watts 
once painted a dead man lying still and silent under 
a rich shroud of opulence, and for the picture, he 


chose the motto What I saved, I lost; what I spent, 
I had; what I gave I have. The faith of the Salva- 
tionist is that Christ gave to the world all that is 
truly meant by life, and that he must give back to 
Christ a life thus redeemed. It is not untrue to say 
that they who have made the greatest sacrifices for 
the Army seem least to regret it afterwards, and 
they who have received the greatest blessings, are 
the least inclined to disillusion. 

In the Great War, there arose a new conception 
of what was required of a soldier. He was still 
under discipline. But he attacked no longer in close 
formation. Among airmen, in the artillery, along 
the trenches, over the top, in no-man's land, duty 
required initiative. 

Initiative is the duty of a Salvationist. Their 
service is so varied and has to be so rapidly impro- 
vised, when emergencies arise, that initiative is de- 
veloped by circumstances themselves. 

But it is the initiative within an organization, and 
Salvationists are in no doubt as to what that organi- 
zation should be. They consider that they cannot 
be militant unless they are military nor do I see the 
rest of us should raise objections. Let the Salva- 
tionists do their work in the way that, as they think, 
they do it most efficiently. 

It is in the perspective of history that we should 
look at the matter. Militancy in the service of God 
and man is by no means a new idea. There is the 
hymn by Baring Gould in which all of us sing that 


"like a mighty army moves the Church of God." 
Why should not the Salvation Army move a little 
faster, in some ways, than the Church of God as a 
whole? Was it not St. Paul who described the 
equipment of the Christian soldier? There have 
been numerous religious orders in which a quasi- 
military obedience is required. The Methodists 
were only called Methodists because there was 
method in what so many people regarded, at the 
outset, as their madness. The Quakers were only 
called Quakers because they adopted a rule of life 
which distinguished them from the rest of the com- 
munity. And the Quakers, despite all their love of 
peace, wore bonnets and a distinctive costume. 

If I were asked to offer an explanation of this 
military method of spreading the gospel, I would 
adopt the famous defence of Cardinal Newman of 
authority in religion. It is strange to think that, at 
the very moment when the Salvation Army was 
founded, he wrote that "there is nothing to surprize 
the mmd if He (God) should introduce into the 
world . . . direct immediate, active and prompt 
... an instrument suited to the need." Cardinal 
Newman was referring, of course, to the ancient and 
historic Church within which he was so illustrious a 
Convert. But it would not be easy to find words 
that better express the reason for the organised dis- 
cipline of the Salvation Army. 

The water that has flowed past the mill-wheel is 
not what here concerns us. Retrospect however 


dramatic must be subordinate to prospect. It is 
the onward march of the Salvation Army, not the 
backward glance, that will help mankind. 

The present position may be simply stated. The 
Salvation Army is at work in 88 countries. Salva- 
tion is preached in 83 languages. There are 16,418 
corps and outposts. There are 32 naval and mili- 
tary homes. There are 1,605 social agencies and 
1,041 day schools. There are 26,350 officers and 
cadets. There are 9,090 persons wholly employed, 
but without rank. There are 107,494 local officers 
or soldiers, engaged in secular pursuits. There are 
48,000 bandsmen, 72,000 songsters and 33,000 corp 
cadets. There are 131 newspapers with a combined 
circulation of 1,600,000. 

Those figures in the aggregate represent an enor- 
mous investment of human life hopes, efforts, 
health in an organisation; and, on the whole, it is 
true to say two things. First, the Salvation Army is 
recruited outside the churches. It really does add 
to the sum total of faith in the world. Secondly, it 
influences many people who, for various reasons, do 
not join the Army. In many thousands of cases, 
these people, after receiving help, spiritual or mate- 
rial, are found in the churches or in honourable posi- 
tions throughout the community. 


THESE are days when, especially in the United 
States, everything has to be investigated. 
Professors in their armchairs pioneer for 
knowledge as their forefathers pioneered over the 
prairie, and research is a kind of covered wagon 
which, for multitudes, is their only intellectual and 
spiritual home. 

Many books and pamphlets have been written in 
praise and blame of trade unions, of foreign mis- 
sions, of hospitals, nor has the Salvation Army es- 
caped this scrutiny. It has been subjected to the 
third degree. In fact, it does not seem possible for 
any survey of social conditions to be complete with- 
out including the work and no less important ffajn 
the work the aims of the Salvation Army. 

There is one verdict which for several reasons, 
has greatly influenced my own mind. It is a verdict 
on the Salvation Army in the United States for 
which Evangeline Booth has been responsible during 
a period of thirty years. It is a verdict from a 
responsible source which is entirely independent of 
Salvationist influence. The verdict is expressed in 



terms of culture and reason, not sentiment and emo- 
tion. It is what sometimes we call highbrow. The 
verdict is discriminating and includes a good deal of 
constructive suggestion which it is admitted the 
Salvation Army always welcomes. What concerns 
us here is the main issue. 

The National Information Bureau was an agency 
of research associated with Mr. John D. Rockefeller, 
Junior. Two investigators Porter R. Lee and Walter 
W. Pettit of the New York School of Social Work 
conducted an investigation and published a report 
entitled Social Service: A Study of the Central Or- 
ganisation and Administration of the Salvation 
Army. Let us hear what they say. 

They find that the Salvation Army is "funda- 
mentally spiritual in its aim." They allude to "its 
magnification of the evangelisation of men." They 
state that it "has developed a self-contained brother- 
hood which has an enormous spiritual driving 
power." They speak of "a remarkable spirit of 
devotion to the Army's program and the morale 
which has been developed." This, they add, "could 
well furnish material for study to other social and 
religious organisations." 

They declare that the "sole purpose" of the Army 
"is the bringing of men into right relationship with 
God" and "keeping them there." And now let us 
see what they add. I am aware that it is the fashion 
to skip quotation. Here is a quotation that should 
be read in full: 


It has weathered a long experience of vitu- 
peration and ridicule amounting almost to 
persecution, and has steadily grown in the 
respect of outside people. It has maintained 
its original form of organisation without 
modification, and it exhibits throughout its 
personnel an altogether remarkable unity of 
purpose. If this record be considered in con- 
nection with these facts: that through prac- 
tically all of its history its uniformed officers 
have been for the most part men and women of 
limited education, limited experience in Iife 7 
limited culture, that the government of the 
Army, not only with reference to its official 
work but with reference to the private lives of 
its personnel, is one of the absolute authority 
of a military system, that its soldier member- 
ship has been recruited in the main from the 
least privileged groups in the community, that 
the officer of highest rank, a colonel, receives 
only $29.50 a week, that to be an officer means 
the forswearing forever of intoxicating liquor, 
drugs, tobacco, profanity, impurity, and the 
common forms of organised recreation, it be- 
comes evident that the Army must have within 
itself a cohesive force of remarkable quality. 

In what I have been writing about the Army, 
there is nothing that is inconsistent with nothing 
that is so convincing as that glowing tribute from 


investigators who have approached the Army from 
the outside and given an honest account of their 

There is an offence known as collecting money 
and receiving money under false pretences against 
which the community has to protect itself. In the 
streets, many people are always ready to solicit 
funds for objects which may be fantastic or fraudu- 
lent. The Salvation Army in the United States 
under the control of Commander Booth has been 
more than careful to uphold the strictest standards 
of accountancy. 

There have been occasions when the Army has 
had to face, not merely impartial enquiry, but a 
hostile prejudice. These incidents occurred in the 
early days and it is merely as illustrations that they 
are here recalled. In Boston, objection was raised 
to the collection of money in the streets for Christ- 
mas and Thanksgiving dinners. The only result 
was that the public subscribed the more generously 
for this social hospitality. 

In California, a somewhat similar and more seri- 
ous action was taken, and the Salvation Army had 
to appeal to the Supreme Court of the State of Cali- 
fornia. That tribunal is, one need hardly say, en- 
tirely independent of the Army. But it issued a 
judgment, based on evidence submitted and expres- 
sive of public opinion, which was outspoken in its 
appreciation of the human realities. These are days 
when religion is described sometimes as "the nar- 


cotic of the people." Here is a judicial pronounce- 
ment on religion as it is apparent in the Salvation 

For twenty-five years it has prosecuted its 
religious and charitable work in the city of Los 
Angeles. It there maintains an "Industrial 
Home," where men out of employment are 
given food and lodging without charge, but are 
required, for their own self-respect and to the 
end that mere professional beggary be not 
fostered, to perform such labour as is within 
their power, being paid the value thereof. It 
maintains a "Rescue Home and Maternity 
Hospital," in which, without charge, food, lodg- 
ings and hospital service are afforded needy 
married women and unfortunate girls. It main- 
tains a "Young Woman's Boarding Home," 
giving for an extremely low price to homeless 
girls and women clean, wholesome food and 
lodging and helpful moral influences. It main- 
tains four other hotels and lodging-houses, 
where the destitute are housed and homed free 
of charge, and where but a small charge is 
exacted from those able to pay, An average 
of twenty-seven persons per night are given 
shelter in these hotels free of all charge. It 
also maintains nine stores, where second-band 
clothing, furniture, rags, paper and junk of 
various kinds, contributed by the charitable, 


are sold at low prices. In these stores and in 
the renovatory work necessary to make many 
contributed articles salable, employment is 
given to the needy, who thus become self- 
sustaining and self-respecting. In the years of 
its labours The Salvation Army has acquired 
properties of much value in Los Angeles, all of 
which are used for one or another of the de- 
scribed purposes. It has alleviated suffering, 
and given relief and employment in thousands 
of cases. Its books of financial account are 
and always have been open to the inspection 
and examination of its contributors, and no one 
of those contributors has ever voiced any com- 
plaint touching the honesty and efficiency of 
The Army's administrative work. 

Here is a great and living charity, doing good 
to thousands of the needy and heavy laden of 
Los Angeles, struck dead because it does not 
make over the management of its affairs to a 
local board of "representative citizens," and 
cannot agree that it will dispense the bounty 
which it received exclusively for local purposes. 
Charity is not only to begin at home, saving as 
under "permit" it may be suffered to go abroad. 
The quality of Mercy (and so necessarily of 
Charity) we are told 

is not strained; 

It droppeth as the gentle rain from Heaven 
Upon the place beneath. 


A" A. moment of great difficulty, Edward J. Hig- 
gins, Chief-of-Staff to Bramwell Booth, was 
elected General of the Salvation Army- 
Legislation affecting the Army was introduced into 
Parliament and the dignity of General Higgins when 
he appeared at Westminster, Ms entire personality, 
greatly impressed the statesmen who came into con- 
tact with him. General Higgins was received in 
private audience by His Majesty King George V, 
and on the occasion of his retirement, the Duke and 
Duchess of York were present in the Albert Hall. 
It was recognised that the third General of the 
Salvation Army, with Mrs. Higgins, had done a 
great day's work for the wellbeing of the world. 

It was in 1934 that Evangeline Booth was elected 
to succeed General Higgins. In accepting that great 
honour, she was involved in corresponding sacrifices. 
A home to which she was attached by long associa- 
tion has had to be left behind. Friends innumer- 
able, who would do anything for her as Commander 
of the Salvation Army in the United States, are no 
longer at her side. It has been a great break but 
there is something of the grand impetuosity of youth 



in the wholehearted enthusiasm with which Evan- 
geline Booth has thrown herself into her last and 
biggest battle for the Kingdom of God. 

I have quoted the covenant of consecration into 
which officers of the Salvation Army enter when 
they receive their Commission. Let us read the 
Covenant which, before the High Council, was ut- 
tered by the General as she assumed her office. It 
is what Haig would have called a "Back-to-the- 
Wall" Order of the Day; and it reveals the very soul 
of Evangeline Booth as she offered her life once 
more and without reserve, to the cause of Christ: 

"As you know, I began my service to God at a 
very early age, and as you also know, I have lived 
a long life, not one hour of which has been spent out 
of the Army. 

"As it is with most of those who have desired to 
accomplish great things, I have struggled with a 
painful sense of the limitations of my natural gifts. 

"But I think I can say here, this morning, to the 
glory of Christ whose 'love constraineth us' that if 
anyone has witnessed effort multiplied a hundred- 
fold, if anyone has seen adversity bring forth bless- 
ing; if anyone has beheld a small thing assume 
influences and powers that were mighty, surely it 
is II 

"God has been good to me. In times when I 
could not see His Face, He has been good to me. 


He has kept in my soul a steadfastness of faith that 
has brought down through the years that compelling 
force which predominates, influences, and permeates 
all beside that force, the master-passion of the 

"While I take this election to indicate that I am 
chosen of God and of you to be your General. I 
discern in this elevation the injunction of our Lord 
Himself. ... 

Whosoever will be great among you, let him 
be your minister; and whosoever will be chief 
among you, let him be your servant. 

"These words constrain me here this morning to 
make a convenant with you, that you may know 
something of what is my thought as to my service 
to you. 

"By the constraint of His love, I will serve you in 
a ministry of holiness joyful and earnest and all 
compelling in moral power. 

"I will seek to proclaim the old truths with new 
energy and with a new vitality. 

"I will seek to preach among you the truth as it is 
in Christ Jesus. Not with faltering tongue, or un- 
sound or questionable teaching, but I will preach it 
as the Apostles of old preached it the one con- 
trolling principle of the soul; the one motive- 
power; mighty in life, the source of all morals, the 


inspiration of all charity, the sanctifier of every re- 
lationship and the sweetness of every toil. 

"I will preach it with a heart of constancy that 
will change not. 

"I will preach it in the spirit of prayer that I may 
minister unto Divine aid. 

"Every impulse of my being shall be to this end. 
Every talent I possess, every physical, mental and 
spiritual gift with wljich God has endowed me, I 
consecrate to this one purpose. 

"I will ask no privileges, I will seek no honours, I 
will accept no benefits, I will look for no friends 
but such as will help me to minister to you the 
leaders of the Army at the different points of our 
world-embracing battlefield a ministry that will 
help you to bring the Kingdom of God on earth in 
the hearts and lives of men. 

"I will give no time, I will expend no energies I 
will not even pray prayers that will not help me to 
bring the Kingdom of God on earth in the hearts 
and lives of men. 

"I will be among you also 'as one that serveth.' 
You shall not find me lacking in rendering you 
separately, or as a body, together with those dear 
to you, any service of which I am capable that is in 
harmony with your high calling and with my office. 

"But, standing upon my knowledge of the all- 
sufficient grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, I do not 
hesitate also to promise that in every sense I will be 


to you a Leader in the great trust wHch your choice 
has imposed upon me. 

"You will ever find me in the front. You will find 
me in the foremost line of our warfare's most heated 
conflict, whatever form that conflict may take. 

"Whether it be seeking to unravel the knotty 
entanglements of the sorest problems of my execu- 
tive office; whether it be along the firing-line of 
attack upon the enemies of Christ on public fields; 
or whether it be in the position of butting off the 
shell and shot of harm to our Organisation, or to our 
humblest soldiery, I am determined that none shall 
be before me. None shall surpass me in toil. None 
shall surpass me in sacrifice. None shall surpass 
me in abandonment of self. 

"Here this morning, with prayerful deliberation, 
in the presence of this important assembly, and in 
the presence of God, I dedicate every power I 
possess, for life or for death, to the stupendous 
obligation of filling the office to which I am called, 
with fidelity, with purity, and with wisdom, so that 
the blessed life-giving streams of our Organisation 
shall reach farther points; shall be more widely 
spread, and that our Army, in this day of strife and 
struggle, political upheavel, economic distresses, 
and human sorrows, shall sound forth to the world 
with a more clarion note than ever before the trump- 
ets of Teace on earth' and 'Glory to God in the 
highest. 7 


"Now I have made my Covenants, what about 

"What is it I want to ask of you? 

"I want to repeat the words of Jehu: 'Is thine 
heart right, as my heart is with your heart? If it 
be, then give me thine hand.' (2 Kings 10: 15) 

"I want you all with me. Not one omitted. 

"I want you all closely with me. Nothing be- 
tween. Undividedly with me. No reservations, 
Wholesouledly with me. Nothing withheld. 

"If all are friends in this room, but one, then I 
have one friend too few. Let not a single heart be 
set against me. 

"This General-arrangement is the nearest to the 
marriage-altar I have ever come. You have taken 
me for 'better or for worse/ Now try me, and see 
how much 'better' you will find me, and how little 
'worse.' If more worse than you expect it won't last 

"But do not let anyone set his heart against me 
before I get started I" 

The election was followed by remarkable scenes. 
We think of the little handful of Salvationists who 
first landed in the United States and raised the 
Blood and Fire Flag. We think of Evangeline 
Booth fighting the battle in Canada on a stipend of 
7 dollars or 1.8.0 a week. Then we see her fare- 


Madison Square Gardens in New York is a vast 
auditorium that holds 20,000 persons. It is only 
used for meetings where the largest attendance is 
expected. It was crowded to the last seat. The 
Salvationists were in full force but in those rising 
tiers of seats there were many present who were 
not Salvationists leading citizens whose names 
carry weight, Homer Cummings, the Attorney Gen- 
eral, representing President Roosevelt Mayor La 
Guardia, a %R$m&&. rt jCathglk^ of Italian extraction 
who stands for reform, generals who remember why 
it was that during the war, Evangeline Booth was 
decorated by the country with the Distinguished 
Service Medal, bankers, lawyers, men of business, 
Bishop Manning born in Northampton, England, 
and the clergy. In every sense of the word, it was a 
great occasion and the tribute to the new General 
was genuinely affectionate. It is no small matter 
that, in a metropolis, ranking with London in popu- 
lation, and one-third Catholic, one-third Protestant, 
one-third Jewish, there should have been this united 
recognition of goodwill revealed in the consecration 
of a woman's life and that, amid all the distractions 
of the radio in the United States, this recognition 
should have been broadcast from coast to coast. 

It was on the Majestic that General Evangeline 
Booth sailed from the United States to Great Britain 
and the Majestic ranks second to no ship in the 
world's mercantile marine. In the harbours of New 
York, Cherbourg and Southampton, belonging to 


three separate sovereignties; there was surprise over 
the appearance of the great liner. She was flying 
an additional flag. It was the flag of no nation. It 
was the flag of mankind the Blood and Fire Flag 
of the Salvation Army with its claim of "The World 
For God." 

The General was deeply touched. Nobody had 
asked the Captain of the Majestic to fly that flag, 
and she visited him on the bridge. There she 
learned something of his distinguished career as a 
seaman. It was not the first time that he had 
raised the Flag of Salvation. In early days he car- 
ried that flag through the streets and stood sentinel 
under its shadow. There was seamanship in his 
mind. There was Salvation in his heart. 

The welcome that the General received in Great 
Britain was spontaneous and enthusiastic. At a re- 
ception rally in the Albert Hall, the Lord Chancellor 
presided and, in the vast audience, there was but 
one emotion a genuine and unreserved goodwill. 
Who seriously thinking the matter over and remem- 
bering how uncertain are the times in which we are 
living, would wish to deny that this unselfish woman, 
with her many gifts and her few faults, has had but 
one thought throughout her laborious career to 
bring the need of the world within the redemptive 
Love of God? And as bravely she buckled on 
heavier armour than ever before and again led this 
Army of Light against the Powers of Darkness, who 
would not cry Godspeed and strengthen her hands 


and render assistance to all who are fighting at her 
side? Is this a battle that any of us would wish to 
be lost? Who would be the happier for such a de- 
feat? And if the battle is won, who loses? The 
victory the only victory that General Evangeline 
Booth has ever wished the Salvation Army to 
achieve is a victory for mankind. 


THE Salvation Army has grown with the years 
into an elaborate and worldwide agency of 
endeavour and achievement. This agency in- 
cludes tens of thousands of lives and influences tens 
of millions. It uses an equipment thousands of 
buildings which cost millions of money. It pub- 
lishes newspapers. It undertakes heavy responsi- 
bilities, divine, human, financial. At first sight, it 
has been surprising to some people that the General 
of the Army should be a woman. There appears to 
be but one other communion in which during mod- 
ern times, a woman has held a position of presiding 
influence, and this the Church of Christ Scientist 
cannot be said to enter into the comparison. 

The significance of Evangeline Booth's general- 
ship transcends the personal. It arises out of the 
very fundamentals on which the entire structure of 
the Army is based, and it is essential that these 
principles should be clearly understood. 

To the Salvationist, it is not enough for a Chris- 
tian to be classified as such. He must be conse- 
crated. He must hold all that he is and all that 
he has as a trust from God to be administered for 



the good of man. He is more than a citizen of the 
Kingdom. He is a citizen who has been enrolled as 
a soldier for immediate and active service. In his 
life of Marlborough, Mr. Churchill says that, to the 
great Duke, infantry was not "a thing that stood 
but a thing that fired." The Salvationist infantry 
are not content to stand. They also are "a thing 
that fires.' 3 The static belief, rank, uniform is 
the starting point for the dynamic. 

In books of reference a "Christian" adds a digit 
to a column in the census. So many hundreds of 
millions of people in this tempestuous world, so we 
learn, are "Christians." The Salvation Army does 
not recognise such nominal Christianity. What 
Christendom still needs is conversion a right- 
about-face a, turning from sin unto God. 

The Army, though, co-ordinated as a worldwide 
institution, lays an especial and inescapeable re- 
sponsibility on the individual within its ranks. It is 
a totalitarian responsibility and the responsibility is 
no greater for men than for women. The call to 
women is thus inherent in the call to the individual. 
It is the call of Christ. 

The claim of the Army on women was asserted by 
Catherine Booth seventy years ago. To-day that 
claim is fortified by a strange and instructive some 
would add, an ominous corroboration. In many 
countries, there has developed a secular militarism 
not a Salvation Army, but an army of slaughter, 
and it is recognised that modern war is no longer a 


merely masculine enterprise. The God of War in- 
cludes women and children in his human sacrifice. 
If, then, women have to stand shoulder to shoulder 
with men in the organisation needed for armies that 
are equipped for death, ought they not with greater 
readiness to stand shoulder to shoulder with men in 
the Army that is equipped for life? 

It is quite true that, for thousands of years, men 
have played a leading part in running this world. 
In matters of policy and administration, they have 
been largely responsible for determining human 
values. It is also evident that, in terms of happi- 
ness, the appraisal of values by men has been greatly 
at fault. The pages of history are crowded with 
schemes of statesmanship, theories of philosophy, 
ambitions, animosities, diplomatic embroglios, terri- 
torial enterprizes, costly beyond all calculation in 
blood and brain and treasure, which collapsed like 
colours within an ever changing kaleidoscope. These 
affairs were at once ephemeral within the centuries 
and irrelevant to what really benefits the race. 

Never was a sane appraisal of human values more 
grievously unbalanced than it has been during our 
own era a period of rapid and uncontrolled transi- 
tion, Jesus Christ came that we might have life and 
have it more abundantly. Life should be the test 
of wisdom and it is life that interests a woman. In 
what is called the woman's movement, it is not only 
that a sex has arrived at emancipation. It is life 
itself that has been set free from its fetters life 


envisaged, not In part, but as a whole the birth of 
life, its preservation, its development into greater 
life beyond. 

It is life that has been the concern of Evangeline 
Booth and the Salvation Army. The judge sees the 
prisoner at the bar as an offender against the law. 
The Salvationist sees him in his cell as a son of his 
mother, as a husband of his wife, as a father of his 
children. The human race includes nations, reli- 
gions, classes. But the race is a family and this 
world is a home. 

It is not easy in England to argue against a 
woman as the leader of a community. The country 
has been served greatly by her Queens Elizabeth, 
Anne, Victoria nor is there any disinclination to 
look forward to the accession of another Queen, if in 
years far ahead, such should be the destiny within 
the House of Windsor. 

The Christian Church has asserted the dignity of 
mankind. The Apostles preached the Gospel to 
slaves. But the slaves became the saints. The 
Redeemed of the Lord, however humble might be 
their station, were described as a royal family. 
Within that accepted Fatherhood of God, there were 
princesses as well as princes King's Daughters as 
well as King's Sons nor at that Court of Heaven, 
has there ever been a Salic Law that debars a woman 
from the succession to burdens heaviest to be borne. 
A woman has the same duty as man the duty to 


In acceptance of obligations to the public, some 
families are honorably conspicuous. William and 
Catherine Booth prayed that their children and their 
children's children through all generations might 
dedicate themselves, body and soul, to the Gospel 
of Christ. Those prayers have been abundantly an- 

But no one could have made it clearer than has 
Evangeline Booth that she does not regard her office 
as a family affair. That office is in the gift as they 
say in churches of the Army itself and the Com- 
missioners who elected the new General were men 
who had full knowledge of her abilities. 

The General has her impulses her moods her 
outlets. Every such personality intense in purpose 
and subjected to constant strain has thus to be re- 
lieved. We talk about dying of laughter. It is 
laughter that keeps some people alive. The salva- 
tion of Evangeline Booth has included a saving 

Miss Booth is blessed with an excellent constitu- 
tion. Realising that vigour is essential to the fulfil- 
ment of her task, she has for many years taken 
exercise on every opportunity, riding, and swimming 
as part of her discipline. Her illnesses have been 
accidents & collision in the automobile, a fall, and 
last but not least, a narrow escape from drowning in 
Lake George. In diving, Miss Booth did not expect 
to find herself entangled in a submerged coil of wire 
fence. Happily she has made herself expert in swim- 


ming under water, and she retained her self-control. 
It was self-control and endurance that saved her 

They who saw her at home in New York, with her 
Great Dane, her Pekingese and her books, or in her 
cottage at Lake George, with its single living room, 
soon became aware that she is pursued, even in re- 
treat, by secretaries. She may take what is called a 
holiday, but the clicking of typewriters proclaim the 
inexorable demands of an arduous office. 

She is adamant on system. Underlying her asso- 
ciation with others there is a disarming humility 
which, however diplomatic, is entirely genuine. She 
believes in consulting those who deserve to be con- 
sulted, and it is possible to speak to her freely on 
any point that arises. Around her council table, so 
her officers assure me, there is perfect freedom of 

There is a story of Mrs. Barnett of Toynbee Hall 
that I have always remembered. She was collecting 
pictures for one of the loan exhibitions which she 
arranged in Whitechapel and the wealthy owner of 
certain masterpieces said "But you have picked 
out all of the best." Mrs. Barnett replied and the 
answer surely deserves a place among the proverbs 
of humanity "Only the best is good enough for the 

Evangeline Booth is one who has acted on the 
principle that only the best is good enough for the 
poor. Great care is taken not merely to give relief 


but to build up self-respect. In his latest book, 
Dean Shatter Mathews of Chicago insists that it is 
the function of the churches in a socialised era to 
safeguard individuality. It is individuality on which 
Evangeline Booth, in her letters, her courtesies, has 
always set a value, And inevitably. She believes 
that Christ died on the cross to save the individual. 

There is a characteristic which they will quickly 
discover who are brought into contact with her for 
the first time. In a great organisation, what matters 
more than anything else is an atmosphere of equity 
in dealing with individuals. If there has been con- 
fidence in Evangeline Booth during her command in 
the United States, it has been because her officers 
believe her to be fairminded. There does not seem 
to be intrigue, reticence, suspicion in the staff. The 
windows are always open to the sun and the breezes. 
Officers have talked with the utmost freedom of 
their Commander and by no means without a touch 
of criticism. They do not hesitate to disagree with 
her in conference and when the General allows her- 
self to be persuaded so officers say when she sur- 
renders to the arguments of others, she has her own 
way of marching onwards with all the flags flying 
except the white flag. She is quite ready to speak 
her mind to her officers but let anyone else touch 
them! He will learn soon enough that Evangeline 
Booth is the daughter of William Booth. 

The influence of Evangeline Booth in the United 
States is the more amazing when we remember that 


she has been quite the most compelling opponent in 
the country of drink and the most persuasive de- 
fender of Prohibition. It is an open secret that she 
has been besought by powerful and sympathetic 
friends to surrender on this question. She has re- 
fused, pointblank to lower her Flag in salute to the 
saloon. On this issue, the nation decided against 
her but admired her the more for her indomitable 
resolution. Anybody can have the courage to win, 
Evangeline Booth has the courage to lose. To me, 
what matters more than them all else is what some- 
times has happened behind the scenes a rich man 
declaring that he intends to withdraw his subscrip- 
tions from the Army unless and Evangeline Booth 
telling him what happens to rich men who suppose 
that their riches are omnipotent over God. 


MILLIONS of words have been written about 
the Salvation Army. In the press, the 
Army always makes good "copy." It is 
applauded. It is criticised. And so in books. A 
library is accumulating around the history of the 
Army, its achievements, its failures, its excellencies 
and its errors. Among those who have written about 
the Army, I; recall not a few personal friends 
Harold Begbie, the biographer of William Booth 
Hugh Redwood, author of Gjad in the Slums and 
William T. Stead great among the greatest in the 
press whose devotion to the Army was lifelong and 

It is possible to regard the Army merely as an 
earthen vessel moulded by man out of man's com- 
mon clay and liable at any moment to be shattered- 
asunder. We may point out this and that imperfec- 
tion in the surface of the earthenware and we may 
suggest that there is much more precious pottery in 
the glass-cases of our carefully guarded museums of 
art and literature and science and culture. 

It is not in the Army as an organisation that I, 
for one, am primarily interested. I care little for 



personalities as such and still less for controversial 
personalities. What fascinates me in the Army is 
not what it appears to be to the eye but the question 
whether it embraces that which is more precious 
than itself. Is there a treasure within this earthen 

For the best part of a century, we have been try- 
ing to destroy beliefs. Some of us spend all our 
time criticising the churches. Others will have it 
that foreign missions have failed. The Sunday 
School is not what it was. And we have plenty of 
reasons for ignoring the Bible. We ask perplexing 
questions about God and doubt the logic, as we call 
it, of prayer. We are quite sure that miracles did 
not and do not happen, and that evangelism is a 
thing of the past. I do not wish to use any hard 
words. But how can we avoid the conclusion, em- 
phatically asserted by people of high authority, that 
ours is now an era of Paganism? 

I have no prejudice against Paganism. The 
Greek Republics were Pagan and very astonishing 
they were in their achievements. Imperial Rome 
,was Pagan, and Rome was neither built nor did she 
disappear in a day. All that I say about Paganism 
is that, as a pursuit of happiness, it is no better than 
a second best. 

I meet a good many Pagans, I read their books, 
and I honour them as specialists. They are experts 
in pessimism. Here is the feast of good things that 
we call life. And Paganism is uneasy unless there 


be a skeleton at the feast. However abundant be 
the banquet of life, death must be the guest of 

It may be a simple table that is spread before the 
Salvation Army a table prepared in the face of 
many enemies. But at least the cup runs over. It 
is goodness and mercy that follow the guests, not 
the skeleton at the feast life victorious amid death, 
not death victorious amid life. It is the Salvationist 
not the sceptic, not the cynic, not the satirist who, 
in countless cases, has prevented suicide. 

Every year there are published hundreds of the 
latest novels. In some of the more romantic, there 
are the old time hero and heroine who fall in love 
and marry and live happily ever after. But the 
fashion in novels is not romance. It is realism, and 
in real life, so we are urged to believe, nobody in 
these days lives happily at any time. The victims 
of circumstances in these dramas of disillusion are 
not always poor. Many of the most wretched char- 
acters are drawn from the rich. 

I am not challenging the truth of these novels. I 
am ready to assume that, in many instances, they 
are a transcript from actuality that many people 
do live a life that seems to be hardly worth the liv- 
ing. Well, that cannot be said of Salvationists. Not 
only do they find that their own lives are worth liv- 
ing. They help to make life worth living for other 
people. They are gripped by God and they grip 
their fellow men. 


As with the individual, so with society. We read 
scores of books which describe the twentieth cen- 
tury. In these books, we are told about war guilt 
and the conduct of the war and the aftermath of 
war and the preparations for further war* Also, we 
learn about the collapse of capitalism and the world- 
wide social revolution. Wells and Spengler and 
Norman Angell they are among a great cloud of 
witnesses who, with an almost wearisome iteration, 
proclaim the failure of civilisation and the perils 
that accompany this failure. Paganism does not 
contribute apparently to social stability. 

The Salvation Army draws aside the veil and re- 
veals possibly in glimpses the realm that this 
world would be if we were all to do what we can to 
make it the kingdom of God. Salvationists may not 
be able to put into words what they mean by this 
Utopia. But they do try to translate the thought 
into deed, into gestures and smiles and tears. Ro- 
mance, even in these days, is not dead. The very 
crooning over the radio expresses, however pitifully, 
the yearning of the people for something more than 
negative. In an era when, despite all our disillusion, 
we gaze at the Madonna glorified in her Child, when 
still we preserve and even build noble cathedrals, 
when still the air breathes symphony from continent 
to continent, may we not say of the Salvation Army 
that it is as if a glow were radiant within the rain- 
bow by which blended light alone are we able to 
live? Nor is it easy to come across anyone what- 


ever his nation, his race or his faith who would 
wish seriously that such a radiance within such a 
rainbow of covenant between God and man be- 
tween man and his neighbour should fade away. 
We accept the Salvation Army as an element in our 
civilisation which has added illumination to all other 

"One touch of nature" says Shakespeare 
"makes the whole world kin," and sometimes we 
think that this is the whole truth about kinship. 
Shakespeare knew better than that. "A little more 
than kin and less than kind" ejaculated Hamlet 
his touch of nature was at the sword's point. Cain 
and Abel were the closest of kin. But they were 
less kind than David and Jonathan who were only 

It is not enough for downcast statesmen and 
moody writers endlessly to bewail the combative 
impulses in man which disintegrate civilisation. 
What is to be done, if anything, to neutralise these 

Since the war, most of the talk has been about 
keeping the peace. Protocols and Treaties of Mu- 
tual Assistance, Locarno Pacts and Kellogg Pacts 
and Washington Agreements all of these have been 
attempts to hold in leash the dogs of war, and pre- 
vent them from breaking loose, nor has Evangeline 
Booth failed at any time to add her influence to the 
demand for measures which are calculated to mini- 
mise the danger of bloodshed. She has never for- 


gotten that she was born on a Christmas Day when 
Glory to God in the highest is accompanied by peace 
and goodwill among men. 

Over land and sea, the General has travelled on 
missions of reconciliation between man and God, 
between man and man. Nor is it only in Great 
Britain and the United States in the British Do- 
minions that she has been welcomed. We see her 
acclaimed in France. She crosses the frontier into 
Germany where also she has been acclaimed. She 
has had long audiences with the Kings of Norway 
and Sweden. 

"I am all for Peace," the General has said to me, 
"but let me make it clear that Peace is not merely a 
cessation of war. Peace is a dedication of life to 
the Prince of Peace. No Peace will ever be secure 
unless it be a consecrated Peace and no consecrated 
Peace can ever be insecure. We must regard Peace 
not only as a blessing to be enjoyed, but as an op- 
portunity which lays on us all an immediate obliga- 

In seeking to abate suspicions between nations, 
she has followed the dictates of her heart* In 1923 3 
there was an earthquake in Japan. Immediately, 
Evangeline Booth appealed in the United States for 
a gift to the Japanese sufferers and the Japanese 
have never forgotten it. When as Commander she 
crossed the Pacific in 1929 and visited Japan, she 
received a national welcome. The Emperor Hiro- 
hito granted her a private audience and she was 


permitted by his command to wear her uniform, 
the bonnet included. Graphically she has described 
the long gallery of the palace up which she made her 
respectful approach to the Emperor, bowing at in- 
tervals, and the conversation through an interpreter 
in which, however, it was quite evident that His 
Majesty understood English. 

The Emperor desired that she should be his guest 
at a garden party and she took her stand at an ap- 
pointed place in the exquisite park that surrounds 
the palace at Tokyo and was greatly interested in 
an impressive scene. The guests were arranged in 
two lines with an avenue of green grass between 
them. There were several minutes of absolute silence 
unbroken by so much as a whisper. The Emperor 
then appeared, walking slowly and quite by himself 
an erect and solitary figure whose countenance 
turning neither to right or left suggested that he 
might have been alone in the universe. In his prog- 
ress, he reached a point opposite where Commander 
Booth had been conducted. Then the Emperor 
turned gravely and in front of the whole company 
raised his hand in salute. The Commander was 
taken completely by surprise. With respectful 
promptitude she saluted in return. 

"During these coming years the Salvation Army 
throughout the world will mobilise its forces, ac- 
tively and with determined purpose, to promote 
reconciliation among all people. We need something 
more than passing resolutions in favour of peace. 


We need a world-wide campaign in which churches 
will be urged to participate, with all citizens, for the 
abatement of hatreds, the removal of irritation, an 
oblivion for ancient grudges, and the substitution of 
mutual endeavour everywhere, to promote the well- 
being of mankind." 

"Is not that rather an ambitious project?" I 
asked. "After all, there is the League of Nations, 
and has it not been baffled in its efforts?" 

"We are for the League. Even if it be half a 
League, we say 'half a League onward.' But the 
League should be supported. I put it to you that 
the clouds on the horizon would disappear if as 
many soldiers were enrolled in the armies of peace 
as there are enrolled in the armies of war. The time 
has come for calling the reservists of religion to the 
colours. Let that be the next war and there will be 
none other." 

"Will not that zeal for peace interfere with your 
efforts to bring salvation to the individual?" 

"Not at all," said the General "We stand where 
Paul stood when he said that in the Gospel, there 
should be no Greek, no Jew, no Scythian, barbarian, 
bond nor free, since Christ is all in all, We stand 
where Isaiah stood when he said that the lion should 
lie down with the lamb and that men should turn 
their weapons of destruction into the instruments of 
prosperity. We stand where John stood when he 
saw the City of God with gates wide open north, 
south, east and west for peoples of all races to 


enter into the joy of the Lord. The better the 
world, the more worth while is it to live the best life 
within the world, and we believe that the best life is 
the new life." 

"Are we not told that disarmament has failed and 
that the League of Nations is little better?" 

"Very well. If that be so, let us be up and doing. 
Let us win the men and women for God who will 
see to it that disarmament is not a failure and that 
the League of Nations is not a mere shadow of what 
it ought to be." 

The method of the Army is so simple that it can 
be expressed in a single sentene. Mobilise the peo- 
ple for well being and they will have no time to 
think of anything else. Do not , abolish the com- 
bative in man. Organise an alternative belligerency. 
Let him attack his real enemies, not his own flesh 
and blood but whatever principality or power en- 
dangers flesh and blood. Let militarism be trans- 
formed into a millenium. 

The Army recognises frontiers. But they are not 
the frontiers that divide nation from nation, race 
from race, religion from religion, class from class. 
They are the frontiers that separate light from dark- 
ness, right from wrong and love fpm hate, and 
wherever the Salvationist is to be found, he is a de- 
fender of the frontiers that make the difference be- 
tween heaven and hell. 

For forty years, I have watched the efforts of 
noblehearted men and women who have never 


ceased to devote their sanity as an antidote to the 
insanities of war. The maintenance of peace is to- 
day the supreme issue that confronts the statesman, 
and who of us can predict what a day may bring 
forth? Who would withhold, at a time like this, a 
hope and a prayer that the Salvation Army, filled to 
overflowing with the ardour of its first love for God 
and Man, may be led by the General, wisely and 
bravely, along a straight path to the battle where 
none are wounded except to be healed, and every 
victory is the salvation of the vanquished? 

Discussion is wholesome. Criticism may be salu- 
tary. But discussion and criticism are not the whole 
duty of life nor do great men and women live their 
lives in order that, after their death, authors may 
write their biographies. The great life is a life that 
has been worth living at the time. 

It is all very well to criticise religion. Criticism 
is an excellent alibi. But the fact that hospitals 
might be improved, does not mean that we can do 
without them. The fact that education is imperfect, 
does not condone illiteracy. The Salvation Army 
may have its faults and failings. But is that a rea- 
son why some poor fellow should sink deeper into 
the morass of indulgence, why some reckless girl 
should be left without a friend in need, why some 
worthless career of extravagance and selfishness 
should not be transformed into a worthy contribu- 
tion to the wealth that is commonwealth? 

This world was not awarded to us as a heritage 


for purposes of study alone. It is not what we know 
about it. It is what we make of it. And the ques- 
tion is whether we want a world that is worth liv- 
ing in. 

That question is larger than economics and politics 
and art and philosophy and science. It is as large 
as man himself. It is as large as God. The Salva- 
tion Army is among the communions that face the 

If life be worth living, all else follows. There is a 
faith that is worth believing. There are pleasures 
that are worth enjoying. There is trade that is 
worth conducting. There is music that is worth 
hearing. There are pictures that are worth seeing. 
There are books that are worth reading. There are 
games that are worth winning. 

Man is confronted by a target at which he can 
aim his endeavours. It is a target with many colours 
that, like camouflage, confuse the vision. There are 
those who think that it is all right if they can plant 
their arrows anywhere on the target. Anything that 
they hit makes a hit. The Salvationist aims at the 
bull's eye Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and 
his righteousness and all these things shall be added 
unto you. Let the eye be clear. Let the hand be 
steady. Let the aim be strong. 

There was one who confessed that he cared not 
who made the laws of the people if only he could 
write their songs. Evangeline Booth has written 
not a few of the songs of the Salvation Army and 


they have been sung by countless multitudes In 
many lands. The latest of these songs claims "the 
world for God," and what is unreasonable in the 
claim? Did not God make the world? To win 
back a world that has gone sadly astray is not this 
the answer to all emergencies? 

Printed in the United States of America